Category Archives: Personality test

In this personality test Category, you can firstly find all of our most useful and up-to-date personality test information.

Secondly, you can find all of the test tips and practice tests on our site.

We hope you find both of these useful.

Rob Williams Assessment Ltd specialise in designing highly predictive psychometric solutions. 

We work across a wide range of sectors and job roles. Our tailor-made psychometric offerings are as unique as our clients’ organisations.

Our organisation prides itself on client satisfaction. We have many positive LinkedIn reviews from our big client projects.

 

Personality Big Five

Personality is at the heart of how we deal with the world. As individuals our unique personalities are powerful predictors of the way in which we respond across a broad range of different situations.

In short, personality can be seen as the underlying pattern of thoughts and feelings that influence what we are likely to do. For personality to affect our behaviour in this way, it must also be consistent and stable, although obviously it will be influenced by context and culture.

At a theoretical level psychologists have studied personality for over 100 years. Comparatively recently, over the last 50 years, a consensus has emerged and there is now agreement that the Five Factor Model (FFM) represents the best structure for human personality. Psychologists agree that these five factors capture the most important and basic personality differences between people; or as some researchers describe them, they are the ‘primary colours’ of personality (Trickey & Hogan, 1998).

Openness to Experience:

Playful, curious, imaginative, creative, open- minded, seeks novelty, forward looking/ visionary.

Conscientiousness:

Orderly, committed, confident (sense of mastery), achievement oriented, reliable, self- disciplined.

Extraversion:

Active, energetic, thrill-seeking, enthusiastic, assertive, interactive, friendly.

Agreeableness:

Accommodating, loyal/trusting, compassionate, altruistic, steady, cooperative, forgiving/tolerant.

Emotional Stability: Calm, even-tempered, positive, resilient/robust, deliberate, easy- going, regulated.

Like many concepts in psychology, there are a number of people who can claim to be the fathers of the FFM, but it’s worth mentioning that the original breakthrough came as a result of the re- analysis of work conducted by Raymond Cattell in the late 1940’s (Cattell, 1946; Russell & Karol, 1994). He constructed a personality model based on the analysis of natural language. The idea was that a

‘lexical’ approach would identify an exhaustive list of words used to describe personality, and thus of all the possible personality traits.

Personality And Life

To illustrate the richness of the relationship between personality and a range of human attributes, here are some example findings for each of the Big Five factors:

Openness to Experience

Openness is related to a person’s in-built values system. People who are ‘open to experience’ are tolerant and accepting and see everyone as equally deserving of justice and equality (Douglas, Bore & Munro, 2016).

Conscientiousness

Conscientious people respect orderliness, duty, achievement, and self-discipline, and are concerned with increasing their competence. The factor is also related to conformity and tradition (Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz & Knafo, 2002).

With respect to the rest of the Big Five, Conscientiousness correlates weakly (and negatively) with Neuroticism, and Agreeableness. It does not appear to be related to the other factors (Van der Linden, Te Nijenhuis & Bakker, 2010).

Extraversion

Extroverts are often assertive, active and sociable. They can also be hedonistic, and actively seek excitement and pleasure.

with Openness to Experience (Van der Linden, Te Nijenhuis & Bakker, 2010).

Agreeableness

Those with Agreeable personalities place an emphasis on compassion, generosity and trust. They are less concerned with power, achievement or ego-related activities.

Generally high levels of agreeableness are related to good life adjustment (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999).

Neuroticism

Neuroticism, or the lack of Emotional Stability over time, is negatively related to:

  • Self-esteem, self-efficacy and internal locus of control (Judge, Erez, Bono, & Thoresen, 2002).

The reactive and impulsive aspects of Neuroticism relate positively to:

  • Hedonism (pleasure without responsibility) and negatively to benevolence and conformity (Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, & Knafo, 2002).

Long term research has demonstrated that Neuroticism is related:

  • Inability to cease using alcohol or drugs, being unable to adjust to problems
  • Mental health issues (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999.)
  • With regard to the other factors, Neuroticism correlates weakly and negatively with Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. It also has a weak negative relationship with Extraversion and Openness (Van der Linden, Te Nijenhuis & Bakker, 2010).

Personality And Work

  • Predictive of both job competencies and more specific work behaviours
  • Such as: attendance, worker turnover, management potential, leadership and occupational health.
  • Correlations run from -1.0 (perfect negative) to +1.0 (perfect positive). Not much, especially continuous attributes like human personality, ever gets close to -1.0 or +1.0.

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Financial Personality online private tuition tools

Financial Personality

Financial aptitude measures by a personality test

The first thing I noticed was that the international test publisher Hogrefe Group describing the role that personality plays in trading (on the financial stock markets).

The Bloomberg Financial Test  made me interested because it is a measure of “financial aptitude” – not a personality test.

Also, Barclays are doing some interesting personality research in this area. Primarily, individual financial preferences for investing. This personality research is very innovative. I predict that other financial institutions may offer similar personality-based profiling for their investors.

Premium Personality Test Practice

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Pandemic impact on personal finances

The coronavirus outbreak has sent a shockwave through the finances of millions of people in the UK.

The effect has not been universal, nor has it been equal. Your age, your job, where you live, and the pre-virus state of your finances will all make a difference to how well you can cope.

For a start, there has been the effect on income. For those who work, the amount of money coming in depends mostly on their wages.

More than nine million people have been off work but paid by the state to stay in their jobs – in other words, placed on furlough.

The government, to date, has paid 80% of someone’s wages. Not every employer can afford to top this up.

That has meant a 20% pay cut for millions of people. Some may have had bigger cuts, as the scheme pays only the first £2,500 of the monthly wage.

Personality test research

Across variables, BIg Five personality test researchers have found strong evidence to support the view that conscientiousness is highly predictive of job performance.

The researchers identified some interesting caveats and boundary conditions. Conscientiousness is a weaker predictor of job performance in “high-complexity” occupations). Conscientious people excel in customer service jobs. And other low to medium complexity occupations.

Furthermore, the researchers found that individuals high in conscientiousness do better in Health Care than, say, Law Enforcement.

The graph below reveals the job sectors in which conscientious individuals are most likely to excel, with Health Care leading the pack.

Big Five personality research

Conscientiousness and job performance
“Summary of meta-analyses of conscientiousness and occupational performance […]. Diamonds … [+]WILMOT & ONES (2019)

The researchers suggest that organizations should do more to harness conscientious workers’ aptitudes and motivations. Conscientious individuals are motivated by status, acceptance, and predictability.

Few individual differences variables have occupational effects as potent and pervasive as conscientiousness. The researchers recommend that ‘…every individual, organizational, and societal decision maker to better understand, develop, and apply the valuable human capital resource that is conscientiousness.

Psychometric fingerprint

There’s valuable information and insights that can be gleaned from ‘how’ a candidate plays a game or completes an assessment, such as their response time or the choices they make. In the past, assessing candidates was the equivalent of measuring footballers simply by the number of goals they score. Now, so much more information can be generated. For example, a footballer’s ‘heat map’ can show their movement on the pitch, whether they make productive runs, whether they track-back etc. A similar level of analysis is now possible in assessment.Personality Test TipsThe vast number of data points that are now included in traditional, gamified and game-based assessments gives you more information to interpret, so you can make more accurate decisions about your candidates. Also, because the way each of us processes information and responds when we’re assessed is unique, it’s now possible to create a ‘psychometric fingerprint’ for each candidate. Knowing not only what score a candidate achieved but how they went about it can help you to prevent cheating and spot potential

We led a UK-wide project managing over twenty occupational psychologists including leading global psychometricians. Over a fourteen-month period this project encompassed the following: situational judgement tests (SJT) design, realistic job preview design, ability test design (numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, problem-solving ability test design, spatial reasoning test design) and personality questionnaire design.

Personality Test Trait Research

Personality tests measure personality traits. There are particular personality traits which employers look for. It therefore makes sense that our My Strengths practice personality test questions available for free. These focus on those personality traits most measured by employers.

Big Five Personality Test Research 2018

Firstly, Bartram’s increasing validity with forced-choice criterion measurement formats.

Secondly, Block’s Q-sort method in personality assessment.

Third is Clemans’ analytical and empirical examination of some properties of ipsative personality measures.

Fourth is Goldberg’s development of markers for the Big-Five personality factor structure. 

Fifth is Kaemmer’s Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Manual for administration and scoring. 

Sixth is Markon’s Role of the DSM-6 personality trait model.

Next is Naumann’s Resilient Big Five have emerged as the paradigm for personality trait psychology.

After which is O’Connor’s Quantitative review of the comprehensiveness of the five-factor model in relation to popular personality.

Penultimately, Roberts’ development of a forced choice measure of typical-performance emotional intelligence.

Last but not least, Salgado’s predicting job performance using FFM and non-FFM personality measures. 

10 personality tips to help your Study Skills

  1. Find your best time to study. 
  2. Keep to a routine. Work in the same place at the same time each day. Also, make sure you have everything you need before you start.
  3. Work to your strengths. Schedule challenging tasks for when you are most alert. Routine ones for when you’re tired.
  4. Don’t waste time. Skim and scan before reading something in-depth.
  5. Avoid distractions. Switch emails and social media off to prevent your mind wandering !
  6. Regularly review your notes. Edit out what you don’t need. Ask yourself, how does it relate to what I already know.
  7. Vary how you to take notes – For example, use Mind Maps and diagrams to generate ideas.
  8. Be critical. Maintain a critical and analytical approach at all times!
  9. Plan your work. So, produce a detailed plan first.
  10. Understand different styles.

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MBTI Change Readiness.

MBTI Change Readiness

Welcome to our MBTI Change Readiness. Or change readiness (by type).

ENFP Change Readiness

Change is an exciting word for ENFPs. These individuals are one of seven personality types who are most likely to be excited by change. They are also fond of variety, so going somewhere new, trying their hand at a new skill, or being around a new set of people piques their curiosity. Routine, everyday experiences can make them bored and de-motivated. If the change involves moving to a new location, they may struggle with saying goodbye to friends and loved ones or letting go of relationships.

  • Give them time to talk about the change and all the possibilities and implications related to it.
  • Explain the overall reason for the change. Where are you headed? What is the goal?
  • Paint a picture or vision of where you see yourself (or them) in the future.
  • Recognize the personal impact of this change. How will their personal needs be dealt with?
  • Demonstrate that you care.
  • Include them in planning.
  • Give them plenty of options and be prepared to answer lots of questions.
  • Understand that they like options, flexibility, and an open-ended plan.

MBTI Change Readiness

ENTP Change Readiness

ENTPs get a rush of excitement when a change or new option is put on the table. Rarely scared of a risk, ENTPs are one of seven personality types most likely to appreciate change. They tend to get bored by a repetitive routine or a predictable lifestyle, so any time a new option is presented they tend to respond with enthusiasm and curiosity rather than dread.

  • Give them a chance to be heard and have a voice in decisions.
  • Keep lines of communication open – answer questions.
  • Give them a general plan or direction to tinker with and develop.
  • They appreciate options, and will likely generate more and more.
  • Give them an opportunity to envision the future and influence changes.
  • Explain the logic of the change. Why is this happening?
  • Explain the systematic changes involved in the development.
  • Explain the goals and overall structure of the change.
  • Be fair and equitable.
  • Give them time to gather information and explore options.
  • Give them room to question goals and adjust plans as the process unfolds.

INFP Change Readiness

INFPs need a little time alone to reflect on changes and figure out whether the changes align with their values and desires. They hate feeling pushed or pressured into anything without having a chance to ruminate on it. That said, INFPs are one of seven types most likely to be excited by change. They enjoy variety, new possibilities, and tend to get bored when life feels monotonous and repetitive. The biggest struggle for INFPs is leaving loved ones if moving locations is a part of the change. They tend to be very attached to their relationships and will need a process or method of maintaining relationships.

MBTI Change Readiness

  • Give them time to think through the change before asking for an immediate response.
  • Ask them what they think about everything related to the change.
  • Give them time to reflect on the changes before taking action.
  • Explain the future vision you have. What is this change going to mean for the future? Stimulate their imagination by painting a vision of the future.
  • Give them a general direction, but don’t overwhelm them with details and structure.
  • Recognize the personal impacts this change might have on them.
  • Explain the values that underlie the change. Are the motivations ethical?
  • Explain the general parameters of the change. Give them options.
  • Loosen up, don’t micro-manage them, don’t seem panicky.

INTP Change Readiness

Change can be very exciting for INTPs. These types are typically flexible and willing to take smart risks. They can become easily bored by everyday, repetitive experiences and enjoy the challenge involved with change. What new options will it present? What creative avenues will be opened up? As introverts, however, INTPs need time alone to process the change before giving an immediate response. They want to ruminate about the change and all the implications and effects before they jump on board.

  • INTPs are very independent and self-sufficient individuals. So give them time to reflect on this decision and have a voice in changes made.
  • Promote written, well thought-out communication or a one-on-one discussion about the change.
  • Give them the overall rationale behind the change. What’s the big picture?
  • Allow them the general plan and let them tinker with it and imagine new possibilities or options related to it.
  • Give them the logical reasons behind the change and why it is taking place.
  • Demonstrate that the leadership in charge of the change is competent and capable.
  • Be fair and equitable in the change.
  • Give them the opportunity to gather as much information as possible.
  • Give them room to adjust goals or implement plans as the process continues.

MBTI Change Readiness

ENFJ Change Readiness

Ever planful and future-focused, ENFJs are initially excited about change. In fact, they are one of seven personality types most likely to be excited by change. They enjoy working over the details involved in a change and getting on board with planning and implementation. They are skilled at making sure everyone feels heard in the change process and are good at making sure personal needs are accounted for and developments run along at a smooth pace. That said, ENFJs can feel very stressed during change, especially if there are personal factors that negatively impact them or others. If the people around them are stressed or anxious about the change they can get so wrapped up in trying to fix things for other people that they burn out or feel emotionally overwhelmed.

  • Discuss the personal impacts of the change directly with them. Ask how you can help.
  • Explain ways that the change will benefit the people involved.
  • Show that you are cooperative in working with others. Explain that the ENFJ won’t have to handle other people’s feelings entirely on their own.
  • Communicate regularly about the change.
  • Paint a picture of the future once the change is implemented.
  • Ask their advice for any future implications that may arise related to the change.
  • Include them in planning and implementation.
  • Demonstrate appreciation and support.
  • Give them a clear plan of action, with specific goals and expectations.
  • Give them a time frame and a statement of priorities.

MBTI Change Readiness

ENTJ Change Readiness

Decisive and analytical, ENTJs enjoy the challenge and possibility that change provides. They are usually quick to question the logic of the change to make sure it is sound. They need time to envision where the change will lead in the future, and they will appreciate being able to discuss this with others. These types are usually valued during change because of their ability to manage transitions effectively and efficiently without getting emotional or distracted. They are skilled at implementing structure, staying on task, and meeting deadlines. They are also a good sounding board for discussing implications of where the change will lead and whether or not it is a smart move.

  • Explain your reasons for the change. They dislike meaningless change but are excited about pragmatic, progressive change.
  • Discuss the change in person and ask for their thoughts and ideas.
  • Give them a voice in the change.
  • Give them opportunities to design the change you want to see happen.
  • Focus on the big picture.
  • Explain the systematic differences that will be put into place because of the change.
  • Demonstrate competent and confident leadership.
  • Give them a clear, concise plan of action.
  • Give a clear time frame and a statement of priorities.
  • Show that you are taking action to get the change in place.

INFJ Change Readiness

INFJs can have mixed reactions to change. While they enjoy being able to toy with a new vision or idea for the future, they can feel hesitant if they see implications that could be negative. They need more time to acclimate to change than many other types. They want to think through their position, analyze the potential effects, and consider how the change will impact them personally and the people around them. INFJs feel most motivated to change when they see a vision or image of the future that looks appealing and novel. They don’t like predictability or monotony and are excited by new options and possibilities – they just need time to mentally engage with the change and toy with the connections and impacts that it will have on everyone.

  • Present change to them one-on-one if possible.
  • Give them time to process the change and think it over before expecting an immediate response.
  • Explain the big picture – what will the future look like when this change is in place?
  • Give them opportunities to design the future and influence changes creatively.
  • Recognize the impacts this change might have on them or others.
  • Explain the values and ethics underlying the change. Is this the conscientious choice?
  • Show appreciation and support.
  • Give them a clear idea of priorities, outcomes, and goals.
  • Give a specific time frame for them to look forward to and plan for.

MBTI Change Readiness

INTJ Change Readiness

Long-term planning is a gift of the INTJ personality type. They can be excited by change, but they need time to figure out their strategy and predict implications and likely effects. Unexpected, surprise changes can irritate INTJs because they want time to create a plan and avoid mistakes that come from impulsivity and haste. INTJs enjoy toying with a new idea or possibility, so change can be exciting for them. They also enjoy the challenge that change provides – it gives them something new to figure out, a new future goal or vision to bring to actuality. They just need to be sure that the people handling the change are competent and will respect their insights into the situation.

  • Give them time alone to reflect on the change and analyze it before expecting a response.
  • Show that you have thought things through and given careful consideration to the implications of the change.
  • Explain the overall rationale and reason for the change.
  • Give them opportunities to influence and plan.
  • Explain the systematic changes that will go into effect.
  • Explain the goals – Where will this change lead to in the future?
  • Be fair to everyone involved in the change.
  • Give a clear, concise plan of action.
  • Be clear on your time frame. Don’t be wishy-washy or vague.
  • Don’t surprise them with the change.
  • Ask for their opinions and ideas.

ESFP Change Readiness

ESFPs have a knack for adapting to change and seeing the opportunities involved in it. These types enjoy variety and novelty and tend to get bored if life feels too repetitive or predictable. That said, they don’t like having changed forced on them, and they will want to have the freedom to make up their own mind about it and figure out whether it aligns with their values. They’ll want to know what options this change will provide, what exciting opportunities will open up, and how it will impact their relationships.

  • Talk to them about what’s going on and get them involved.
  • Keep lines of communication open and let them have a voice.
  • Give them real facts and data to explain why the change is taking place.
  • Be very specific and give a realistic picture of what to expect.
  • Be very clear about the expectations, roles, and potential responsibilities.
  • Recognize the impact this change will have on them and the people around them.
  • Explain the ethics and values behind the change. Is this the morally right thing to do?
  • Demonstrate that you care.
  • Give them some flexibility and room to explore options.
  • Don’t be rigid or panicky as this will set them on edge.

MBTI Change Readiness

ESTP Change Readiness

Change and variety are thrilling to ESTP individuals. These types get a rush of excitement from a new adventure or challenge. In fact, according to the MBTI® Manual, these are one of seven types most likely to enjoy change. ESTPs tend to get bored if their environments become predictable or mundane. Rather than repetition and consistency, they enjoy novel experiences and a mixture of tactical and strategic risk-taking. However, they don’t like having their decisions made for them. They’re more likely to create change or instigate it rather than just follow along on someone else’s plan. If they’re going to pursue a life-altering change then they’ll want strong, logical reasons to do so.

  • Give them time to talk about the changes and keep lines of communication open.
  • Let them have a voice in the process.
  • Give them real data and facts as to why the change is going to happen.
  • Be specific and detailed when explaining your reasons.
  • Give a realistic picture of what the future will look like.
  • Be logical – explain why this change is happening and discuss the systematic changes.
  • Be fair to everyone involved.
  • Demonstrate confidence and competence.
  • Let them gather more information as needed.
  • Don’t be rigid or micro-manage during the process.

ISFP Change Readiness

ISFPs can feel hesitant when new changes come their way. While they are typically adventurous and flexible, they are also deeply attached to their loved ones and the lives they create for themselves. They need time to reflect on change, to analyze the implications and discern how it will affect their personal relationships. They want to feel that there is a meaningful reason to pursue a change, and they need to feel supported and given reasonable facts and specifics about why the change needs to happen in the first place.

  • Discuss the change one-on-one and then give them time to process it alone afterward.
  • Don’t expect them to have an immediate answer.
  • Give them specifics and facts to explain your reasoning for the change.
  • Give them a realistic picture of what the future will look like with these changes in place.
  • Recognize the personal impacts of the change.
  • Be supportive and appreciative.
  • Explain the values that instigated the change. Are there any ethical reasons for it?
  • Don’t be controlling or overly rigid.

ISTP Change Readiness

Well thought-out change and new opportunities tend to be very appealing to ISTPs. They don’t mind switching things up or pursuing a new challenge, but they dislike change that seems emotionally-directed or overly optimistic. ISTPs want to know what the systematic changes will be, what the logic is, what new options will open up, and whether or not the direction seems feasible. They also want plenty of time to reflect on a change and assimilate information before jumping on board.

MBTI Change Readiness

  • Give them time to think through their position before discussing it or expecting an answer.
  • Be realistic and show the facts and data that led to this decision.
  • Explain the logic for the change.
  • Show competence and clarity in your decision-making process.
  • Give them room to adjust goals and plans as the process unfolds.
  • Explain the general parameters.
  • Be flexible and let them present new options.

ESFJ Change Readiness

Change can be unnerving for ESFJ individuals. These types enjoy mapping out their future and having all the details worked out so that life is on track to reach their goals. They enjoy consistency, traditions, and fellowship with well-known friends and family members. While they can enjoy the occasional adventure, they still appreciate stability and consistency. Change that is handled with concern, support, and organization can be exciting to them if it leads to a promising future. They just need to feel that their relationships aren’t at stake and that the people in charge will be supportive and competent.

  • Keep lines of communication open. Be honest and forthcoming.
  • Explain the facts and details that led to this decision.
  • Paint a realistic picture of where the change will lead.
  • Respect their feelings and be supportive and appreciative.
  • Show that you have a clear plan and a set deadline.
  • Make expectations, roles, and goals clear.
  • Explain the values that led to the change. Is this an ethical or moral decision?

ESTJs and Change

While change isn’t especially exciting for ESTJs, they tend to accept it if the goal is pragmatic and logical. They want

  1. To have a certain amount of control when change occurs and will be irritated if they are expected to just sit around and “let things happen”.
  2. Enjoy organizing, planning, and creating effective systems so that the objectives are met on an agreed-upon timeline.
  3. Although, they will hate change if the people handling it are wishy-washy, vague, or unrealistic in their objectives.
  • Explain the logical reasons for the change.
  • Be open and forthcoming with communication. Don’t beat around the bush.
  • Explain with clarity and real facts why the change has to take place.
  • Discuss the objectives, goals, and vision of where the change will lead.
  • Be specific about what’s needed and what the expectations are.
  • Have a clear timeline set forth and an organized plan of action.
  • Be fair and considerate to everyone involved.

MBTI Change Readiness

ISFJ Change Readiness

ISFJs are one of the types least likely to be excited by change. Individuals of this type thrive on stability, consistency, and a sense of routine. They like knowing what to expect and they enjoy working in fields where they have developed expertise and deep knowledge. Having to change, especially if there doesn’t seem to be a strong reason to, can be very stressful for them. That said, ISFJs can appreciate change if it will improve their relationship, their security, or will promote a cause they believe in. They can also enjoy change if they’re given time to prepare themselves for it and acclimate to the idea. Change that is thrust upon them without warning is the most unsettling to them.

  • Let them know about the change well ahead of time.
  • Be realistic and provide facts that back up your decision.
  • Paint a picture of where the change will lead – but be pragmatic, not fanciful.
  • Give them time to reflect on the change privately before expecting a response.
  • Be very specific about the purpose of the change. Don’t be vague or wishy-washy.
  • Be supportive and explain how people will be taken care of.
  • Give a clear timeline and outline of expectations and goals.

ISTJ Change Readiness

ISTJs need time to prepare for changes, and can be hesitant of a change initially. They enjoy stability and a sense of the familiar so having to suddenly react to a change can be stressful for them. If there is a strong, logical reason for a change to take place then they will usually get on board and be very helpful and thorough in preparations. But if the change seems poorly-planned, illogical, or impulsive they will be very skeptical and wary of embarking on such a venture. Planning and taking care of details is essential to these types, and if this part of the change-process seems hasty they will be apprehensive about whoever is leading the change.

  • Let them know about the change as early as possible so that they can prepare.
  • Involve them in the process and ask their advice.
  • Give strong, logical reasons for the change to take place.
  • Be very clear about the order of the change (deadlines, expectations, goals).
  • Use facts to back up your reasons for the change.
  • Give them time to process the change privately before expecting a lot of discussion.

Our Other MBTI blogs

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MBTI fun

MBTI Change Readiness

Personality type MBTI tips. Beach holiday with wooden board, palm tree and palm tree.

MBTI Relationships

Welcome to our MBTI relationships info.

MBTI personality test tips

MBTI personality test tips are very useful. Mainly because the MBTI is one of the most popular personality tests used by UK employers for development.

We also offer other tips, as shown below:

16PF personality test tips

OPQ personality test tips

NEO personality test tips

The MBTI is based on the work of Jung. Although he is more likely to have endorsed 3 personality styles (Extraversion- Introversion, Sensing-Intuitive, Thinking-Feeling). Rather than including the 4th personality styles measured by the MBTI (Judging-Perceiving).

It has considerable supporting materials in terms of books and different types of personality test report.

MBTI Relationship Tips to remember 

…when completing the Myers-Briggs personality test are:

  • Firstly, the personality test questions in the MBTI are statement and word pairs. Word pairs are a less common form of psychometric test format than other commonly used personality test questions.
  • Secondly, employers are looking for certain personality traits in any role – as indicators of high job performance in key areas.
  • Also, since the MBTI is for development purposes – not selection – there is no need to consider faking it.
Personality type MBTI tips. Close up of eye.

ISTP Relationships

When it comes to chilled-out lovers, ISTPs take the cake. Virtuosos simply don’t see the point of getting themselves worked up over things that are out of their control. If their crush isn’t reciprocated, that’s fine — they’ll find someone else. To them, there’s no point in trying to change a person, and if a potential partner doesn’t seem like a good match, Virtuosos have no problem moving on.

It’s true that ISTPs can sometimes be considered too chill. As they tend to dislike commitment, their laid-back nature can potentially translate as cold rather than chill. But that’s simply because Virtuosos are all about living for the now. They’re happy to settle down for the right person, as long as that person gives them plenty of space to do their own thing and be their own chill self.

ESTP Relationships

Like ISTPs, ESTPs tend to focus on enjoying the present rather than obsessing over the past or the future. Entrepreneurs don’t want to be held back or brought down by stress, because that will keep them from having the freedom that they thrive on. They value spontaneity and excitement over well-laid plans, so rather than dreaming about their wedding day, ESTPs are more likely to be found thinking about their next fun adventure.

As a result, Entrepreneurs don’t tend to get worked up over relationship strife. An ISTP’s habit of leaping before looking can get them into trouble at times, but it allows them to enjoy their relationships rather than overthink them. People with this personality truly don’t know how to sit still, so while they’re not chill in that sense, their tendency to take action rather than dwell on mistakes and heartbreaks makes them pretty laid-back in relationships.

MBTI relationships

ENTP Relationships

Though ENTPs do spend a lot of their time processing and analyzing information, they are prone to taking a rational approach rather than an emotional one. Debaters are more likely than other personalities to be logical and objective. While they might read into text messages or tones of voice, they’ll do so in a quest for empirical evidence rather than simply deciding that a certain text or tone hurt their feelings.

The greatest weakness of ENTPs tends to be their emotional obliviousness (sorry, Debaters, but it’s true). However, being analytical rather than emotional does make them considerably chiller than personalities ruled by feelings. Debaters don’t like to get unnecessarily stressed out. They like to push boundaries, not question them, and while they may not be the most laid-back people in general, these qualities allow them to be a pretty chill in romantic relationships.

INTP Relationships

INTPs can sometimes appear chiller than they actually are, but when it comes to relationships, they’re pretty similar to ENTPs. Logicians have extremely active minds, but if things feel tiresome or pointless, they tend to let them go rather than hold on to them unnecessarily. They may just be the most logical of all the personality types, so if something (or someone) isn’t making sense, they’re not going to fight to make it work.

MBTI relationships

Don’t get me wrong — INTPs take their relationships very seriously. But as those with this personality tend to be particularly direct and honest, they’ll work to create mutual understanding rather than trying to read their partner’s mind. For them, minimizing misunderstandings makes far more sense than playing games. They won’t waste their time trying to puzzle over their partner’s body language. After all, why stress when you can simply ask what’s up?

As wonderful as it can be to have a partner, being in a relationship can also come with its fair share of stressors. But if you’re one of those lucky few for whom dating doesn’t cause all that much stress, enjoy it — it will definitely save you lots of headaches along the way.

More MBTI tips

Points to remember when completing the Myers-Briggs personality test are:

  • The personality test questions in the MBTI are statement and word pairs. Word pairs are a less common form of psychometric test format than other commonly used personality test questions.
  • Employers are looking for certain personality traits in any role – as indicators of high job performance in key areas. Since the MBTI is for development purposes – not selection – there is no need to consider faking it.

As one of the most popular personality tests used by UK employers for development, MBTI practice is important to us.

Personality type MBTI tips. Various faces depicting different personalities.

 

MBTI relationships

Insights personality tool

Insights is a commonly used personality test with a similar type-based approach to the MBTI. The test and the INSIGHTS report content are all based on the personality work of Jung which balanced personality traits or energies.

Unlike the MBTI, the INSIGHTS approach:

  • Is based on colour.
  • Has the personality types displayed on the INSIGHTS Wheel in the INSIGHTS reports.
  • The full range of personality types or quadrants is displayed here for each individual who has taken the personality questionnaire.

MBTI relationships

MBTI links to the Big FIve

  • Extroversion: Introversion, shy, quiet, withdrawn, untalkative, inhibited, VERSUS extroversion, talkative, verbal, sociable, outgoing, dominant, assertive.
  • Agreeableness: Sympathetic, kind, warm, understanding, sincere, considerate, VERSUS self-centred, non-conformist, unsympathetic, unkind, harsh, insincere.
  • Conscientiousness: careful, organised, neat, orderly, systematic, precise, practical, VERSUS risk-taking, experimenting, disorganised, disorderly, careless, absent-minded.
  • Emotional stability: emotionally stable, un-envious, relaxed, optimistic, unemotional, VERSUS anxious, neurotic, nervous, tense, fidgety.
  • Intellect: creative, imaginative, complex, philosophical, intuitive, abstract thinking, open to experience, VERSUS uncreative, un-intellectual, unintelligent, shallow, ignorant, short-sighted, sensual, concrete thinking.

INSIGHTS tips

So, there’s another commonly used personality test with a similar type-based approach to the MBTI. This is called INSIGHTS. The test and the INSIGHTS report content are all based on the personality work of Jung which balanced personality traits or energies.

Unlike the MBTI, the INSIGHTS approach:

  • Is based on colour
  • Has the personality types displayed on the INSIGHTS Wheel in the INSIGHTS reports.

MBTI relationships

Personality type tests – Psychometric insights

There are valuable insights from ‘how’ a candidate plays a game or completes an assessment. For example, their response time or the choices they make.

Firstly, traditional assessment counts points scored. Secondly, new assessments like work style and game-based assessment collect many more data points. Thus providing so much more information to interpret.

Knowing not only what score a candidate achieved but how they went about it can help you to prevent cheating and spot potential.

Each candidate processes info in a unique way. Plus we all uniquely answer the online assessment. The candidate’s psychometric fingerprint’.

MBTI relationships

Work Type Test

The popularity of RJPs has increased as employers recognise the importance of matching applicants’ expectations with the day-to-day realities of working life. Firstly, this realistic info improves the decisions an employer can make based on their applicant data. Secondly, it improves the role fit. Hence job satisfaction increases and employee attrition decreases.

Psychometric fingerprint

There are valuable information and insights that can be gleaned from ‘how’ a candidate plays a game or completes an assessment, such as their response time or the choices they make. In the past, assessing candidates was the equivalent of measuring footballers simply by the number of goals they score. Now, so much more information can be generated. For example, a footballer’s ‘heat map’ can show their movement on the pitch, whether they make productive runs, whether they track-back etc. A similar level of analysis is now possible in the assessment.

We led a UK-wide project managing over twenty occupational psychologists including leading global psychometricians. Over a fourteen-month period, this project encompassed the following: situational judgement tests (SJT) design, realistic job preview design, ability test design (numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, problem-solving ability test design, spatial reasoning test design) and personality questionnaire design.

Our Other MBTI blogs

MBTI change readiness

Fun with the MBTI

MBTI relationships

MBTI

Welcome to our MBTI tips and other MBTI fun!

MBTI links to the Big FIve

  • Extroversion: Introversion, shy, quiet, withdrawn, untalkative, inhibited, VERSUS extroversion, talkative, verbal, sociable, outgoing, dominant, assertive.
  • Agreeableness: Sympathetic, kind, warm, understanding, sincere, considerate, VERSUS self-centred, non-conformist, unsympathetic, unkind, harsh, insincere.
  • Conscientiousness: careful, organised, neat, orderly, systematic, precise, practical, VERSUS risk-taking, experimenting, disorganised, disorderly, careless, absent-minded.
  • Emotional stability: emotionally stable, un-envious, relaxed, optimistic, unemotional, VERSUS anxious, neurotic, nervous, tense, fidgety.
  • Intellect: creative, imaginative, complex, philosophical, intuitive, abstract thinking, open to experience, VERSUS uncreative, un-intellectual, unintelligent, shallow, ignorant, short-sighted, sensual, concrete thinking.

MBTI Personality Profiling

We also offer personality test profiling and general personality trait test tips. Here we focus on using MBTI tips to generate holiday ideas.

Personality type MBTI tips. Beach holiday with wooden board, palm tree and palm tree.

Welcome to our MBTI personality tips page, which we start with our MBTI Holidays by Type.

MBTI fun

MBTI and Holidays

ISTJHere is a holiday idea for each of the sixteen personality types:
A weekend away to a historical city
ISFJ/INFJCamping tripGo away with close friends
INTJExtend their next business trip
ISTPExplore where their ancestors are from
ISFPTry a yoga or mindfulness retreat
INFPTake their whole family away
INTPStay-cation
ESTPDo a road trip across America
ESFPTake a ‘sabbatical’ year out
ENFPBook a last-minute package holiday somewhere hot
ENTPVolunteer work in a developing country
ESTJBackpack across Asia
ESFJMusic Festival
ENFJVisit a tropical island
ENTJGo skiing/snowboarding
  • Certain MBTI personality types need a break more often – in particular those that have to manage a stressful working and/or home life. Each type reacts differently to stressful events.
  • The most and second most type most likely to need a holiday because they regularly get stressed is: INFJ then INTJ…. followed by INTP and INFP.  I can explain more about these two (INT_)’s susceptibility to stress.
  • The four types least likely to need a holiday because they rarely get stressed are: ENTP; ESTP; ENFP; and ESFP. I can explain more about these four types (E_ _ P)’s resilience to stress.
  • Each type finds different things restful. The personality types most likely to find a holiday relaxing are the Sensing types. 

HOW TO USE THE MBTI TO THINK ABOUT YOUR FAVOURITE TYPES OF HOLIDAY

Personality type MBTI tips. Car packed for holiday with beach in the background.

Although deciphering personality is more of an art than an exact science, unravelling your emotional predispositions can help you decide what travel environments you might thrive in.

The most popular way to quantify a person’s personality is the Myers-Briggs system, which breaks down behaviours into four opposing preferences:

  • Extraversion (E) vs. Introversion (I)
  • Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N)
  • Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F)
  • Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P)

Not every personality type will enjoy every type of vacation. However, following the Myers-Briggs categorization, understanding the preferences and general attitudes of each and how much influence each trait has can help you plan your next adventure accordingly.

MBTI fun

SENSING VS. INTUITION

MBTI tips S or N infographic

MBTI Personality Tips

When it comes to travel, the most important personality dimension is your sensing vs. intuition preference, says Molly Owens, the CEO of Truity, a company that develops personality assessments based on the Myers-Briggs theory.

“Sensors tend to be more concrete and comfortable with routine, so they’re more likely to choose relaxing vacations that are focused on simple pleasures — laying on a beach, playing or watching sports, or enjoying nature,” Owens says. “Intuitives, on the other hand, are more conceptual and future-oriented, so they like to travel that introduces them to new ideas and stimulates their minds.”

JUDGING VS. PERCEIVING

MBTI tips J or P infographic

After deciding what type of itinerary you’re considering, judging vs. perceiving is the next personality factor to consider — especially if you plan to travel with other people.

Judgers are planners who book tickets and reservations way ahead of time, and whose guidebooks are smothered with dog-ears and notes. Whereas perceivers are more go-with-the-flow types who are okay with rolling the dice on a travel idea and leaving the rest up to chance.

The third important personality factor is whether you’re an introvert or an extravert. Although extraverts and introverts may enjoy similar vacation ideas, there are significant differences in how they approach the day-to-day travel experience. The more notable difference is stimulation tolerance.

Extraverts are much more comfortable with stimulation, so spending all day in a busy city or a noisy crowd of tourists won’t bother them as much as it will introverts, who will need more downtime in between these types of excursions.

WHERE MBTI PERSONALITY TYPES SHOULD TRAVEL

The final Myers-Briggs factor to consider is thinkers vs. feelers.

Although each type may enjoy the same type of vacation, a thinker’s travel motivations are likely different than their feeler counterpart.

Your personality type also influences how often you’ll need a vacation, and what type of preparations you should take in advance of your vacation.

If your combination of the Myers-Briggs traits means you’re an INFJ, INTJ, INTP or INFP, you’re more likely to succumb to daily stressors and need to take a break and escape the chaos more frequently, says Rob Williams, a personality test design specialist with Rob Williams Assessment Ltd. Conversely, Williams says if you’re an ENTP, ESTP, ENFP or ESFP, you’re less likely to need frequent vacations because you’re predisposed to be more resilient against stress.

MBTI Personality Tips

MBTI and travel tips

After you diagnose your personality type and couple it with how you manage things like stress, fear, anxiety, and new experiences, you can paint a picture of your travel persona. This persona can guide you during your travels, but keep in mind that it will likely evolve. If your vacations mirror who you are and foster personal growth, you’ll learn to travel better while developing the resilience and attitude that Gretzel says are crucial to have a rewarding vacation.

But before you book your ticket and wander through a stuffy airport, sleep-deprived and hangry, consider if your itinerary complements your personality type.

Your personality influences what type of vacation you prefer, and it also affects your activities, how you get around, and who you bring along. Below are how each Myers-Briggs personality type prefers to travel and where they should consider taking a vacation.

MBTI tips travel for all types infographic

MBTI Fun

ANALYSTS

INTJ/ARCHITECT

As an INTJ, you don’t like waiting around for people and want to do things on your timetable. Solo travel can be a rewarding experience for you, as social environments will wear you out. Stay away from guided tours with large groups, and follow your own itinerary. If your itinerary requires a guide, look for companies that offer smaller, personal tour groups. You likely enjoy visiting historical locations and museums where you can soak up interesting facts and lesser-known tidbits of information.

Where INTJ should travel: Solo trip to a historical location

INTP/LOGICIAN

MBTI Fun

You’re constantly daydreaming about new ideas and like to keep your options open. You’d rather improvise and go where the wind blows you. If you’re going to interact with locals or other tourists, it’s best to travel with someone who knows you well because you can come off as shy and withdrawn when around new people. You crave new experiences, so look for opportunities to do something unique, whether it’s attending a cultural event, trying a new food or learning a new language.

Where INTP should travel: Secluded nature retreat

ENTJ/COMMANDER

If there’s ever a challenge, you’re the first to step up to the plate. You’ll thrive during your trip if you create a detailed travel itinerary, which lets you maximize your time and know what to expect each day. It doesn’t matter if you’re alone or with friends. Much like your home life, you’ll have no problem meeting new people on your journey.

Where ENTJ should travel: Backpacking journey

ENTP/DEBATER

Whether you’re chatting with your best friend or a crowd of strangers, you have no problem starting an interesting conversation. It’s best if you visit busy places with lively social environments and lots of opportunities to mingle with locals. You’ll likely enjoy your trip more if you don’t make concrete plans, and instead ask locals for advice on what to do and where to go.

Where ENTP should travel: Lively city trip

MBTI Personality Tips

DIPLOMATS

INFJ/ADVOCATE

While you enjoy helping others, you also need to take time for yourself to unwind. Limit yourself to travelling with a few close friends or family members who understand that you’ll need some downtime by yourself to recharge. Choose a calm destination that will still provide you with humanitarian service opportunities — just make sure you plan out your days so you can get a good balance between serving others and relaxing.

Where INFJ should travel: Volunteering in a relaxing location

MBTI Fun

INFP/MEDIATOR

You’re probably caught daydreaming quite often, and where you travel shouldn’t change that habit. Choose destinations that are full of colours and creative cultures that feel like one of the fantasy worlds you’ve imagined. Travel with people who mean something to you, but keep your group small as you may become overwhelmed in a large group setting. Don’t make too many plans in your itinerary, and take time to express yourself when you’re feeling inspired.

Where INFP should travel: Creative get away with a couple of close friends

ENFJ/PROTAGONIST

If you’re going on vacation, make sure it’s exotic and exhilarating. You should organize your trip well and make plans far in advance, especially if you’re travelling with a big group. It’s important to you that everyone sees and does what they want, so you’re willing to compromise and give up doing what you want in favour of others. But be careful not to sacrifice too much — it’s important that you enjoy yourself just as much as everyone else.

Where ENFJ should travel: Off-the-beaten-path

MBTI Personality Tips

ENFP/CAMPAIGNER

You’re a free spirit and have no reason to make or follow plans while travelling. Visit somewhere that’s exciting and full of life with lots of people, whether they’re tourists or locals. Stick with a lively group, whether they’re longtime friends or new acquaintances you met in the hotel lobby. You may get overwhelmed with the flourish of new sights, sounds and faces, so be sure to take a break when you start feeling stressed.

Where ENFP should travel: Mingle with the crowds in a bustling city

SENTINELS

ISTJ/LOGISTICIAN

Planning should be your first priority when travelling, so organize your days in such a way that you’ll get to see and do everything on your list. Travelling alone ensures you don’t have anyone interfering with your plans, but it’s alright if you want to bring one or two other people along. Make sure those who are travelling with you know what the plan is and are prepared to follow it. But if your plans don’t quite go accordingly, don’t get too frustrated — you’ll still see and do more than most people.

Where ISTJ should travel: History-packed excursion with a close friend

MBTI personality Tips

ISFJ/DEFENDER

Although you’re an introvert, you still thrive in social settings. When making your vacation plans, keep plenty of time free for unwinding and putting your feet up. Your travel companions should be devoted friends or family members who you care about deeply. You tend to take lots of pictures and buy lots of souvenirs to remember your travels, so leave plenty of room in your suitcase! But don’t get too caught up in these details or else you’ll miss out on the best parts of exploring a new culture.

  • We recommend that ISFJ personality types would enjoy camping trips with close friends.

ESTJ/EXECUTIVE

You’re an extravert and it’s normal for you to be part of a group, especially when travelling. You are a natural leader and will undoubtedly take the lead on planning your group’s trip. When making plans, remember that not everyone will enjoy fast-paced days that are full of activities. To keep everyone happy, including yourself, choose a bustling city with something for everyone.

  • Our overall travel recommendation for an ESTJ is travelling to a large city with a big group of friends

ESFJ/CONSUL

Family is your first priority in life and you’d appreciate a vacation with them the most. Choose a well-known, picturesque destination where you can take holiday card-worthy photos with your loved ones. Make plans with your family members in mind and be sure to add downtime to the calendar to reminisce about the day’s experiences.

  • Our overall travel recommendation for an ESFJ is to go on vacation with the family.

EXPLORERS

ISTP/VIRTUOSO

As an introvert, you value time away from crowds of people. It’s best to travel solo as your alone time is what helps you re-energize and gives you the freedom to explore as you please. If you’re bringing a travel companion, make sure it’s someone who’s alright with giving you your space. While you don’t need to plan much, you should look into hands-on opportunities to dive into other cultures, like learning a native art form, eating a traditional meal, or attending a holiday event.

MBTI Fun

  • Our overall travel recommendation for ISTP types is to do a cultural trip.

ISFP/ADVENTURER

Planning is not your strength and you should embrace that. You can easily buy a plane ticket on a whim or hop in the car and set off on an adventure. You enjoy connecting with people, so bring a few good friends along for the ride. But being around people requires a lot of your energy. To make sure you don’t feel too drained, get some alone time, or at least set quiet time for the group so you can collect your thoughts.

  • Our overall travel recommendations are road trips with good friends (for ISFP Adventurer types)

ESTP/ENTREPRENEUR

You don’t need to make too many plans for your vacation— you’re fine with taking risks and you’re good at figuring things out as you go. Travel with a band of adventurous pals or meet up with an organized group so you won’t be alone during your trip. Find a destination with many outdoor activities like surfing, kayaking and canyoning that will push your limits and keep your adrenaline pumping.

We recommend adrenaline-rush experiences for an ESTP personality type.

ESFP/ENTERTAINER

Treat yourself to a luxury vacation with a couple of friends. Head to a place with perfect weather and great views where you can sit back and indulge in the finer things. Plans aren’t important since you’ll be relaxing most of the time. But make sure you’re able to hit a few parties or social gatherings where you can do what you do best— entertain the masses and make lots of new connections.

We recommend a high-end luxury break for ESFP personality types.

For more on this very interesting subject don’t miss the full article by Kalon Surf with a mention of our contribution.

MBTI personality Tips

Personality type MBTI tips. Various faces depicting different personalities.

MBTI Fun – Relationships

In my mind, I’m chill AF. But in reality, I’m about as far from the chill as a person can get. I can’t help it — I’m compelled to over-analyze and scrutinize. If someone sends me “K” in a text message rather than “OK,” you better believe I’m going to consider all of the possible implications of this one-letter text in my head for the next 96 hours at minimum. When it comes to the most chill Myers-Briggs personality types, a Logistician is probably not a contender, and as a result, my ISTJ personality makes me far more high-strung than low-maintenance.

  • What the person talks about
  • How they say it – type of words (e.g. “I” vs. “We”), type and amount of questions (e.g. “what?”, “why?”)
  • Body Language
  • Tonality

ISTP

When it comes to chilled-out lovers, ISTPs take the cake. Virtuosos simply don’t see the point of getting themselves worked up over things that are out of their control. If their crush isn’t reciprocated, that’s fine — they’ll find someone else. To them, there’s no point in trying to change a person, and if a potential partner doesn’t seem like a good match, Virtuosos have no problem moving on.

It’s true that ISTPs can sometimes be considered too chill. As they tend to dislike commitment, their laid-back nature can potentially translate as cold rather than chill. But that’s simply because Virtuosos are all about living for the now. They’re happy to settle down for the right person, as long as that person gives them plenty of space to do their own thing and be their own chill self.

ESTP

Like ISTPs, ESTPs tend to focus on enjoying the present rather than obsessing over the past or the future. Entrepreneurs don’t want to be held back or brought down by stress, because that will keep them from having the freedom that they thrive on. They value spontaneity and excitement over well-laid plans, so rather than dreaming about their wedding day, ESTPs are more likely to be found thinking about their next fun adventure.

MBTI personality tips

As a result, Entrepreneurs don’t tend to get worked up over relationship strife. An ISTP’s habit of leaping before looking can get them into trouble at times, but it allows them to enjoy their relationships rather than overthink them. People with this personality truly don’t know how to sit still, so while they’re not chill in that sense, their tendency to take action rather than dwell on mistakes and heartbreaks makes them pretty laid-back in relationships.

ENTP

Though ENTPs do spend a lot of their time processing and analyzing information, they are prone to taking a rational approach rather than an emotional one. Debaters are more likely than other personalities to be logical and objective. While they might read into text messages or tones of voice, they’ll do so in a quest for empirical evidence rather than simply deciding that a certain text or tone hurt their feelings.

The greatest weakness of ENTPs tends to be their emotional obliviousness (sorry, Debaters, but it’s true). However, being analytical rather than emotional does make them considerably chiller than personalities ruled by feelings. Debaters don’t like to get unnecessarily stressed out. They like to push boundaries, not question them, and while they may not be the most laid-back people in general, these qualities allow them to be a pretty chill in romantic relationships.

INTP

INTPs can sometimes appear chiller than they actually are, but when it comes to relationships, they’re pretty similar to ENTPs. Logicians have extremely active minds, but if things feel tiresome or pointless, they tend to let them go rather than hold on to them unnecessarily. They may just be the most logical of all the personality types, so if something (or someone) isn’t making sense, they’re not going to fight to make it work.

MBTI personality tips

Interpreting your MBTI personality type

What makes a person chill in a relationship? Someone who knows how to live in the moment or someone with a trusting nature is probably less likely to stress about their relationships than someone harbouring doubts and insecurities. Having an MBTI personality type that tends towards chillness doesn’t necessarily mean that you’re always cool as a cucumber, but it definitely helps. Not sure what your personality type is? Take the test to find out. You might just be one of the Myers-Briggs personalities most likely to play it cool in relationships (and if you are, please teach me your chill ways!).

Observing MBTI type in everyday life

When you talk to someone, pay attention to traits such as:

Don’t get me wrong — INTPs take their relationships very seriously. But as those with this personality tend to be particularly direct and honest, they’ll work to create mutual understanding rather than trying to read their partner’s mind. For them, minimizing misunderstandings makes far more sense than playing games. They won’t waste their time trying to puzzle over their partner’s body language. After all, why stress when you can simply ask what’s up?

As wonderful as it can be to have a partner, being in a relationship can also come with its fair share of stressors. But if you’re one of those lucky few for whom dating doesn’t cause all that much stress, enjoy it — it will definitely save you lots of headaches along the way.

MBTI Fun

Observing MBTI type in everyday life

Based on your observations, determine if the friend or family member is more:

  • Introverted – talks about the present, speaks calmly and quietly, limited body language hesitant to make eye contact
  • Extroverted – talks about the future, speaks loudly and with inflection, animated body language, maintains eye contact

Then determine if they are more

  • Task Orientated – talks and asks about things, focuses more on tasks than people, does not show a lot of emotion
  • People Orientated – talks and asks about people, focuses more on people than tasks, shows emotion fairly easily

More MBTI personality tips

Points to remember when completing the Myers-Briggs personality test are:

  • The personality test questions in the MBTI are statement and word pairs. Word pairs are a less common form of psychometric test format than other commonly used personality test questions.
  • Employers are looking for certain personality traits in any role – as indicators of high job performance in key areas. Since the MBTI is for development purposes – not selection – there is no need to consider faking it.

As one of the most popular personality tests used by UK employers for development, MBTI practice is important to us.

MBTI tips

Personality type MBTI tips. Various faces depicting different personalities.

MBTI personality tips

The MBTI is based on the work of Jung. Although he is more likely to have endorsed 3 personality styles (Extraversion- Introversion, Sensing-Intuitive, Thinking-Feeling). Rather than including the 4th personality styles measured by the MBTI (Judging-Perceiving).

It has considerable supporting materials in terms of books and different types of the personality test report.

Personality type tests – Psychometric insights

There’s valuable insights from ‘how’ a candidate plays a game or completes an assessment. For example, their response time or the choices they make.

Firstly, traditional assessment counts points scored. Secondly, new assessments like work style and game based assessment collect many more data points. Thus providing so much more information to interpret.

Knowing not only what score a candidate achieved but how they went about it can help you to prevent cheating and spot potential.

Each candidate processes info in a unique way. Plus we all uniquely answer the online assessment. The candidate’s psychometric fingerprint’.

Other Types Tests – Enneagram Archetypes

Once you answer the questions, you may fall into a variety of categories. You may be classified as a reformer, an enthusiast or even an achiever.

One of the cool things this test tells you is how you work with co-workers. Better yet, it shows you how to improve in certain areas where you may have scored low.

Overall, this test offers a lot. It’s one of the only tests that tries to help you improve areas that you score low in.

MBTI Tips to remember 

When completing the Myers-Briggs personality test remember to:

  • Firstly, the personality test questions in the MBTI are a statement and word pairs. Word pairs are a less common form of psychometric test format than other commonly used personality test questions.
  • Secondly, employers are looking for certain personality traits in any role – as indicators of high job performance in key areas.
  • Also, since the MBTI is for development purposes – not selection – there is no need to consider faking it.
Personality type MBTI tips. Close up of eye.

MBTI personality tips

INSIGHTS personality test

So, there’s another commonly used personality test with a similar type-based approach to the MBTI. This is called INSIGHTS. The test and the INSIGHTS report content are all based on the personality work of Jung which balanced personality traits or energies.

Unlike the MBTI, the INSIGHTS approach:

  • Is based on colour
  • Has the personality types displayed on the INSIGHTS Wheel in the INSIGHTS reports.

Rob Williams Assessment Ltd contributions to this article are as shown. The remainder care of Kalon Surf.

Aptitude test practice books

Rob Williams’s five practice aptitude tests books are all available on Amazon.

Firstly, in our opinion, this is the best aptitude test practice book for Passing Verbal Reasoning Tests.

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Secondly, in our opinion this is the best aptitude test practice book for Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests.

Our Other MBTI blogs

DISC personality types

Enneagram personality types

MBTI change readiness

Relationships based upon the MBTI

MBTI fun

Personality Test Validation Service

Test validation benefits

The key benefit is the production of a report that highlights those personality factors that are important for success leading to improvements in future recruitment. Other possible benefits include the following:

  • Development of clear decision rules to make recruitment both more efficient and more effective;
  • Information on the areas in which staff are seen as working more effectively or less effectively;
  • How the client’s staff differ in terms of personality from other groups; and
  • Depending on what data is collected, analysis of information relating to fairness and diversity

Incentives, such as discounts on materials, are something that need to be negotiated on a case by case basis – depending on the quality of the data that might be given to us. It is likely that the analysis would be conducted free of charge.

Premium Personality Test Practice

What is validity?

“Convergent” or “construct” validity scientifically checks whether we’re really measuring what we’ve set out to measure.

  • In the case of pre-hire assessments, are we really measuring personality?
  • Are we identifying something else about our test-takers — their reading ability, English fluency, memory, or ability to stick with a task?
  • Are we left with actual personality data, or just a dataset of people who could finish a lengthy questionnaire?

Validation Stages

Personality Test Validation Stage 1

Identify the following:

  • Who should complete the personality. Each participant should be doing a similar role. A sample in excess of 40-50 is required. 
  • What job performance measures should be used and are available from HR. Examples of suitable job performance criteria:
  • sales figures
  • appraisal ratings
  • development or assessment center competency ratings or pass/fail criteria
  • length of service

Personality Test Validation

Stage 2 – Personality Test Validation

An excellent way of obtaining job performance data is to use a managerial Performance Rating form. Managers rate behavioural criteria that are important in their particular role.  Some of the benefits include getting better quality data, getting around the “political” problems of appraisal ratings and covering all aspects of job performance focusing on those which would be more likely to correlate to the 16PF.

At the same time it is worthwhile asking people to rate themselves on the same criteria using a Performance Rating form.

Stage 3 – Personality Test Data Collection

Arrange for identified employees to complete the personality test. Also for their respective managers to complete individual Performance Rating forms.

Final Stage of Personality Test Validation

ROB WILLIAMS ASSESSMENT will conduct all the statistics – requiring a couple of days work – and share the results with the client in the form of a short report – also requiring a couple of days work.

10 personality tips to help your Study Skills

  1. Find time to study – If you manage your time badly, inevitably you will be less productive than if you manage it well. This can lead to increased stress and anxiety levels, especially around exam time.
  2. Keep to a routine – Work in the same place at the same time each day. Also, make sure you have everything you need before you start.
  3. Work to your strengths – Schedule challenging tasks for when you are most alert, and routine ones for when you may be feeling more tired.
  4. Don’t waste time – Rather than reading irrelevant material, skim and scan to help you decide if you need to read something critically and in-depth.
  5. Avoid distractions – Related to above. Switch emails and social media off to prevent your mind wandering while trying to learn new information!
  6. Regularly review your notes – Edit out what you don’t need. Ask yourself the question: “Is this information is relevant to my assignment, and how does it relate to what I already know.”
  7. Vary how you to take notes – For example, use Mind Maps and diagrams to generate ideas and linear notes to focus your ideas for essay or report plans.
  8. Be critical – Make sure that you always add your own comment to every concept or quotation that you write down. Maintain a critical and analytical approach at all times!
  9. Plan your work – If writing an assignment produce a detailed plan before you start to write it. This will make the drafting process much less stressful
  10. Understand different styles  – By understanding different writing styles – such as academic, journal and journalistic styles – you can put what you read into perspective. In particular, you can become more aware of any particular bias.

Our other personality test blogs

Our personality test tips

Financial personality

Bespoke personality test design

Our Culture fit tests

Personality assessment research

Our personality assessments

Values tests

Psychometric development

Strengths Design

Assessment design projects involving virtual strengths design are one of our many psychometric test design specialities.

Virtual Strengths Design

Situational judgement tests (SJTs) have also become prevalent in graduate recruitment. These tests present scenarios to applicants and asks them to select the best and the worst thing to do next. The scenarios are set within the context of the recruiting organisation, so the questions are usually perceived favourably by candidates. SJTs are very popular in the United States due to their excellent record of fairness across different ethnic groups.

We have experience of designing situational strengths tests that are generic in nature. In addition to these SJT-based situational strengths tests, we offer these two alternative psychometric test designs.

Education and public sector aptitude test design projects

  • Numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, abstract reasoning and decision analysis tests.
  • Critical reasoning aptitude test (legal sector).
  • Situational judgement test (health sector).

Virtual Strengths Design

Citibank Aptitude Test Design Example

  • Designing blended assessments for retail and call centre operations across the USA.
  • Allowing for cultural differences in Mexican operations.
  • Managing item writing team for SJTs, ability tests, biodata questions etc.

EPSO Aptitude Test Design Project

  • Development of project management test.
  • Design of IT skills-based aptitude tests.

Assessments Design

This psychometric test design is similar in nature to personality questionnaire design, explained here. Our bespoke strengths test design process…

  1. Has dimensions key to the role being assessed.
  2. Reflect the personality, attitudinal and motivational aspects of the role-specific dimensions.
  3. Have face valid questions.
  4. Be capable of completion in 20 minutes approx.
  5. Adopt a single-stimulus question format (Likert scale).
  6. Adopt a normative format of scoring utilising a sten look-up table (for each personality scale).

Virtual Strengths Design

Situational Strengths Test

An excellent example is CAPP’s Situational Strengths Test. This builds on the many advantages that SJTs have, being:

–Easy to administer to a large audience.

–Relatively strong validity.

–Can assess a sample of the relevant KSA’s.

–Refreshed items possible.

–More difficult to fake responses.

Bespoke VBR Example

  • 3-4 scenarios will assess each value, giving approx. 15-16 questions.
  • Provides accurate and meaningful feedback to each respondent.
  • This practical job preview has the advantage of using the same SJT format.

Situational interview(s) comprising:

  • Values.
  • Competency; and
  • Technical questions.

Situational Simulation Exercises

  • Scenarios from job analysis used to design simulation exercises.
  • Parallel version developed to maximise exercise integrity.
  • And to minimise the risk of applicants sharing details of tools.
  • Without compromising the validity of the assessment process

Situational Values-Based Interview

  • We propose a structured interview comprising values, competency and technical pharmacy questions
  • Collaborate with job incumbents to design technical questions/scoring guide.

A situational judgement test, or SJT, presents realistic scenarios similar to those that would be encountered when doing a particular job. Typically, candidates must identify the Best and the Worst course of action from four multiple-choice options. In other words, you must make two “judgements” about what to do and what not to do next in the “situation” presented. An alternative SJT format asks the test-taker to rank multiple-choice options in terms of effectiveness.

Situational strengths in the news

On BBC Radio 2, in February 2014, Dr Almuth McDowell referred to the benefits of situational judgement tests and one of the SJT example items developed by Rob Williams Assessment Ltd.

The same interview on SJT benefits also featured in The Times on 4th Feb, Dr Almuth McDowell, a lecturer at the University of Surrey, says psychometric testing has an important role to play, but only in conjunction with other measures, not least because it is possible to cheat. 

Additional situational judgment test tips are available in Rob Williams Assessment Ltd’s latest Career Builder article entitled “How to succeed at management interview tests”.

Strengths Assessment Development

Psychometric test examples are useful to see the type of strengths development testing approaches.

In fact, there are many many types of psychometric test examples. Let’s consider the many different strengths that a person may possess. For example, their intelligence strengths and weaknesses from the many different types of intelligence.

The Intelligence Test demonstrates the range of possible intelligence strengths. There are many types of intelligence. For example, creative intelligence and musical aptitude which we have not included in our model.

Strengths Assessment Design

An effective competency design framework is crucial to the operation of many HR practices.

Shown below is an example of a typical competency design framework used in an assessment centre. In this case, the group exercise’s competency component of the overall assessment centre competency matrix:

– Oral Communication

How clearly and confidently the individual communicates with the group.

– Planning and Organising

How much consideration is given to planning and systematically going through the issues outlined in the scenario.

– Judgement and Decision-Making

How logically the individual makes their decisions and judges other participants’ input/comments.

– Analysis and Problem-Solving

How effectively the individual analyses the scenario’s issues and the solutions proposed.

– Finding Solutions

The creative thinking that is shown. The number and effectiveness of the ideas generated.

– Teamworking

How well the individual works with and encourages the other group exercise participants.

Strengths framework design

Having a competency framework helps an organisation to:

– Know which knowledge, skills and abilities are important for success in each role

– Measure and benchmark organisational performance

– Select, develop and performance manage employees (against the competencies associated with each role).

– Is it more cost effective to adapt an already validated model?

– How best to get buy-in across the business? Firstly, for involvement in the development stage. Secondly, to get commitment to future use of the validated framework.

– What role analysis techniques are most suitable for analysing each of the job roles?

– How to benchmark employee performance against the trial competency framework?

– How to validate the effectiveness of the draft competency framework?

Strengths-based Telephone interview design

Previous projects that have encompassed telephone interview sift designs. These include:

  • Competency-based sift design for telephone and cv-based sifts (finance sector).
  • Telephone interview script design (consultancy firm).
  • Conducting telephone interviews for the armed services.
  • Telephone interview design (manufacturing sector).

Strengths Development – Role Analysis

There follows a Role Analysis Case Study: a US bank had two specific requirements: ensuring a representative sample by samplying sufficiently high number of people per role. Interviewees were mainly high performers; sampled across both urban and rural branches; with their offices scattered right across the U.S.

1) Strengths Telephone-based interviews

Firstly, these formed a large part of the job analysis research. The advantages of using a telephone-based approach was that a standard template could be created with a script to adhere to whilst also allowing some follow-up question flexibility.

2) Assessment Designs – Visionary interviews

Secondly, these were run on a more select basis with a range of senior managers (within each job role). A scripted template ensured that all psychologists asked the standard set of questions. Face-to-face visionary interviews were also arranged with the most senior personnel at some of the focus group sites.

3) Strengths Focus groups

Thirdly, these were conducted in several American States, situated in Central, Eastern and Western time zones. A semi-structured focus group format represented the most suitable job analysis technique to use. Six participants, drawn from each job role, were invited to attend each role-specific focus group session.

4) Strengths Role survey

In addition, a role survey was created based on the bank’s competency framework, with two questions per competency. Survey results were also used to inform the item writing process.

The final 5-10 minute survey had two banks of questions with the stems:

  • How important do you do each of the following on a daily basis? and how important are the following to your job?

10 personality tips to help your Study Skills

  1. Find your best time to study. 
  2. Keep to a routine. Work in the same place at the same time each day. Also, make sure you have everything you need before you start.
  3. Work to your strengths. Schedule challenging tasks for when you are most alert. Routine ones for when you’re tired.
  4. Don’t waste time. Skim and scan before reading something in-depth.
  5. Avoid distractions. Switch emails and social media off to prevent your mind wandering !
  6. Regularly review your notes. Edit out what you don’t need. Ask yourself, how does it relate to what I already know.
  7. Vary how you to take notes – For example, use Mind Maps and diagrams to generate ideas.
  8. Be critical. Maintain a critical and analytical approach at all times!
  9. Plan your work. So, produce a detailed plan first.
  10. Understand different styles.

Example job analysis briefings

Candidate Experience Briefing – A separate briefing detailed the client style and language (US English) needs.

The main aims from a “Candidate Experience” perspectives included:

  • Reflecting the company brand
  • Engaging job applicants
  • Providing some elements of a realistic job preview
  • Overall look and feel to be consistent

Assessment Designs – Focus Group Briefing

The focus group aims were to confirm the role profile interview data.

Firstly, focuses on how best to structure the upcoming focus group sessions. Secondly, a consideration of the outputs required. Thirdly, how individual consultants could best run their focus group sessions.

Situational Strengths Test

There is a specialised form of situational judgement test called the Situational Strengths Test. One company that uses this test is Lloyds pharmacy, where the CAPP Situational Strengths Test is used to recruit pharmacists.

Situational strengths tests have these advantages (in any context):

– Easy to administer to large audience

– Relatively strong validity

– Can assess sample of the relevant KSA’s

– Refreshed items possible

– More difficult to fake responses

Virtual strengths design

Bespoke VBR Example

  • 3-4 scenarios will assess each value, giving approx. 15-16 questions
  • Provides accurate and meaningful feedback to each respondent
  • This practical job preview has the advantage of using the same SJT format

Assessment Designs – Situational Exercises

  • Scenarios from job analysis used to design simulation exercises
  • Parallel version developed to maximise exercise integrity and minimise risk of applicants sharing details of tools and compromising the validity of the assessment process

The following situational strengths scenarios are examples only. Actual client projects always start with the most suitable level of role analysis. Then again validate the content against client requirement by choosing the most predictive scenarios and answer options.

Every scenario used also gives candidates a realistic insight into the role. Thus your applicants’s understanding of their own fit with the role. This operates in addition to the assessment component (of the same situational strengths test).

Each scenario used also gives candidates a realistic insight into the role. Thus your applicants’s understanding of their own fit with the role. This operates in addition to the assessment component (of the same situational strengths test).

Every scenario used also gives candidates a realistic insight into the role. Thus your applicants’s understanding of their own fit with the role. This operates in addition to the assessment component (of the same situational strengths test).

Aptitude test design projects

Ability tests for graduates, including problem-solving aptitude tests and abstract reasoning tests.

UKCAT test practice questions for several clients. Each project encompas

  • Verbal reasoning practice tests;
  • Numerical reasoning practice tests,
  • Abstract reasoning practice tests and
  • Decision-making practice aptitude tests.

Firstly, verbal analogies test.
Secondly, ability tests at basic, graduate and at senior managerial levels.
Thirdly, numeracy tests.
Fourthly, practice critical reasoning ability tests (for the LNAT);

Virtual strengths design

Job Preview Design

Many application processes now start online with a realistic job preview design that potential applicants take on the company website to “test” if the role still appears suitable after finding out about the realities of the role. Hence it’s a job preview but a realistic one.

Realistic role preview design

Typically, the test format is similar to an SJT in that job scenarios are presented which give the test-taker / job applicant an idea of what the job entails. Whilst the realistic job preview (RJP) is not a testing phase often there will be a more sophisticated SJT in a subsequent phase. In more sophisticated examples still graphics or video technology is used to further enhance the Realistic job preview / SJT experience for candidates.

Virtual strengths design

This are an area that Rob Williams Assessment Ltd also specialise in. This builds on our situational judgement test design and we are often asked to design both a realistic job preview and a situational judgement test at the same time.

Our approach to the design of realistic job previews has the following phases.

Step-by-step role preview design 

(1) Planning a representative sample

(2) Conducting a highly detailed  set of telephone interviews and focus groups.

(3) Item writing

(4) SJT and RJP item reviewing

(5) compile a trial version to be reviewed by 10-12 subject matter experts (SME’s) in the role

(6) Trialling the situational judgement test

(7) Statistical analysis

(8) Presentation of trial results at standard-setting meeting with core SME’s

(9) Validation and norming the situational judgement test

Aptitude test practice books

Rob Williams’s five practice aptitude tests books are all available on Amazon:

Firstly, in our opinion this is the best aptitude test practice book for Passing Verbal Reasoning Tests.

Secondly, in our opinion this is the best aptitude test practice book forPassing Numerical Reasoning Tests.

Assessment Design

Situational Strengths Test

One company that uses this test is Lloyds pharmacy, where the CAPP Situational Strengths Test is used to recruit pharmacists.

Situational strengths tests have these advantages (in any context):

– Easy to administer to large audience.

– Relatively strong validity.

– Can assess sample of the relevant KSA’s.

– Refreshed items possible.

– More difficult to fake responses.

Situational Exercises

  • Scenarios from job analysis used to design simulation exercises.
  • Parallel version developed to maximise exercise integrity.
  • To minimise risk of applicants sharing details of tools.

The following situational strengths scenarios are examples only. Actual client projects always start with the most suitable level of role analysis. Then again validate the content against client requirement by choosing the most predictive scenarios and answer options.

Every scenario used also gives candidates a realistic insight into the role. Thus your applicants’s understanding of their own fit with the role. This operates in addition to the assessment component (of the same situational strengths test).

Every scenario used also gives candidates a realistic insight into the role. Thus your applicants’s understanding of their own fit with the role. This operates in addition to the assessment component (of the same situational strengths test).

strengths design

Situational Strengths Research

Employers are increasingly using bespoke situational judgement tests (where the candidate is presented with scenarios and asked to select the best and the worst thing to do next) as a way to learn more about their character and attitudes to work.

The increase in the number of graduate courses and the career benefits of having a degree have driven a huge increase in the number of graduates. There remains a limited number of vacancies each year on graduate trainee schemes.

During the recent years of recession, the number of graduate entry roles became even more restricted; making graduate recruitment even more competitive. Microsoft, for example, received 15,000 job applications for each of its 150 graduate position in 2009. That year, the success ratio of applications to job offers was 1:100 at Microsoft.

This has created a “bottleneck” between the high number of recent graduates and the considerably lower number who are successfully placed on graduate entry schemes. Clearly, there are severe implications of such a challenging job market for graduates.

For employers too, there is a “war on talent” to find and sign-up the best possible graduates in the marketplace. It is a recruiters’ market, however most recruiters want to recruit the top echelon of high-performing graduates who are showing the best leadership potential, the most effective ability to work in teams, the highest levels of motivation and drive etc. SJTs offer an effective means of measuring each of these abilities and attributes.

Situational Strengths Design


Situational judgment tests in the news

On BBC Radio 2, in February 2014, Dr Almuth McDowell referred to the benefits of situational judgement tests and one of the SJT example items developed by Rob Williams Assessment Ltd.

The same interview on SJT benefits also featured in The Times on 4th Feb, Dr Almuth McDowell, a lecturer at the University of Surrey, says psychometric testing has an important role to play, but only in conjunction with other measures, not least because it is possible to cheat. 

Additional situational judgment test tips are available in Rob Williams Assessment Ltd’s latest Career Builder article entitled “How to succeed at management interview tests”.

Example of situational judgement tests 

You mention in passing to a colleague that you believe there are some financial risks associated with a financial product that’s about to be launched to customers. In a team meeting later that week, your colleague shares this information with your manager – without mentioning your name. How do you react?

You are then asked to select your most preferred and least preferred responses

(a) Apologise on your colleague’s behalf for their poor explanation.

(b) Suggest that your colleague does their own research.

(c) Ask your colleague to also include you in future.

(d) Check that your manager understands the risk involved.

By using real life scenarios, the idea is that employers will get a better understanding of how you might operate in the work place.

Branching situational judgement tests 

As psychometric tests have become more commonplace, the bigger users have commissioned their own bespoke situational judgement tests. Rob Williams Assessment has worked on several such projects for High Street banks and for the European Union. Another recent innovation of test developers has been online adaptive tests. With these tests, if you are doing well, you will find that the questions get progressively harder. That can feel like a challenge since you are pushed until you reach the most challenging level you can. This is the level at which you – just like other candidates with your level of verbal reasoning – start to get questions wrong.

The innovative design of shorter and more efficient tests was driven by an increasingly aware of the immediacy of the Internet and our increasing use of emails and social media in short, sharp bursts.  This discourages test takers from spending 30-40 minutes online doing the same questionnaire. Its better for everyone to keep test takers engaged when being tested – not bored!

So what will adaptive tests mean for you as a prospective test taker?  The biggest difference is the shortness of the test. The second major difference is that you will find an adaptive test more challenging. Without getting into their highly technical make-up, the test adapts to your ability level. More specifically it adapts to find the most challenging question that you can answer correctly.

In the past you may have found questions on a test fluctuating in difficulty or generally becoming more and more difficult the further on you get in the test. Consider a test of twenty questions with the first the easiest and the twentieth the most difficult.

Knowledge-based situational judgement tests 

Some or all of the scenarios presented in an SJT can test specific job knowledge. For example, a retail marketing SJT may ask questions about the 3Ps (price, position, promotion) of product marketing. Alternatively both an SJT measuring generic decision-making skills may be used alongside a knowledge-based test.

Video based Situational judgment tests in 2018

Simulated situational judgement tests are increasingly common as recruitment sifts. Adding 2D or 3D workplace scenario graphics brings the situational judgment test scenarios to life. This can only promote the company brand and make employers using simulated situational judgment tests more desirable employers.

UK and US psychometric test publishers have produced both video-based and animated SJT scenarios. Animated SJTs are easier – and therefore cheaper – for global companies to develop.

situational strengths design

Situational judgement test research 2010 – 2018

Becker’s development and validation of a situational judgment test of employee integrity.

Secondly, Bergman’s scoring situational judgment tests: Once you get the data, your troubles begin.

Next, Bledlow’s situational judgment test of personal initiative and its relationship to performance.

Also, Campion’s state of research on situational judgment tests: A content analysis and directions for future research.

Then, Catano, V. M., Brochu, A. & Lamerson, C. D. (2012). Assessing the reliability of situational judgment tests used in high_stakes situations. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 20(3), 333–346.

Also, Chan’s situational judgment and job performance.

Next, Guenole’s Are situational judgment tests precise enough for feedback in leadership development?

Houston’s development of the enlisted computer adaptive personality scales.

Plus, Krumm’s how “situational” is judgment in situational judgment tests?

Also, McDaniel;s towards an understanding of situational judgment item validity and group differences.

Then, McDaniel’s situational judgment tests.

Mumford’s development and validation of a team role knowledge situational judgment test.

Next, Peus’ situation-based measurement of the full range of leadership model. Development and validation of a situational judgment test.

Also, Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: Evidence from intercultural multimedia situational judgement tests.

Finally, Sharma’s development and validation of a situational judgment test of emotional intelligence.

Situational judgement test research 2010 – 2019

Firstly, Becker’s development and validation of a situational judgment test of employee integrity.

Secondly, Bergman’s scoring situational judgment tests: Once you get the data, your troubles begin.

Next, Bledlow’s situational judgment test of personal initiative and its relationship to performance.

Also, Campion’s state of research on situational judgment tests: A content analysis and directions for future research.

Then, Catano, V. M., Brochu, A. & Lamerson, C. D. (2012). Assessing the reliability of situational judgment tests used in high_stakes situations. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 20(3), 333–346.

Also, Chan’s situational judgment and job performance.

Next, Guenole’s Are situational judgment tests precise enough for feedback in leadership development?

Situational judgement test research 2010 – 2019 Part II

Also, Houston’s development of the enlisted computer adaptive personality scales.

Plus, Krumm’s how “situational” is judgment in situational judgment tests?

Also, McDaniel;s towards an understanding of situational judgment item validity and group differences.

Situational Strengths Design

Then, McDaniel’s situational judgment tests.

And finally, Mumford’s development and validation of a team role knowledge situational judgment test.

SJT research 2008 – 2019 Part III

Next, Peus’ situation-based measurement of the full range of leadership model. Development and validation of a situational judgment test.

Also, Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: Evidence from intercultural multimedia situational judgement tests.

Finally, Sharma’s development and validation of a situational judgment test of emotional intelligence.

Secondly, Campion’s state of research on situational judgment tests: A content analysis and directions for future research.

Thirdly, Catano’s assessing the reliability of situational judgment tests used in high stakes situations.

Fourthly, Guenole’s are situational judgment tests precise enough for feedback in leadership development?

Fifthly, Krumm’s how “situational” is judgment in situational judgment tests?

Situational judgement test research 2008 – 2019 Part IV

Firstly, Lievens’ situational judgment tests: From measures of situational judgment to measures of general domain knowledge.

Secondly, McDaniel’s Toward an understanding of situational judgment item validity and group differences.

Thirdly, Mumford’s team role test. The development and validation of a team role knowledge situational judgment test.

Situational Strengths Design

Fourthly, Peus’ situation-based measurement of the full range of leadership model. The development and validation of a situational judgment test.

Then, next is Sharma’s development and validation of a situational judgment test of emotional intelligence.

And next is Rockstuhl’s putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: Evidence from intercultural multimedia situational judgment tests.

Plus, Weekley’s low-fidelity simulations.

Then finally, Westring’s estimating trait and situational variance in a situational judgment test.

SJT research 2008 – 2019 Part VI

Firstly, Allen, V., Rahman, N., Weissman, A., MacCann, C., Lewis, C., & Roberts, R. D. (2015). The Situational Test of Emotional Management–Brief (STEM-B): Development and validation using item response theory and latent class analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 81, 195- 200.

Secondly, Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition & emotion6(3-4), 169-200.

Thirdly, Bledow, R., & Frese, M. (2009). A situational judgment test of personal initiative and its

Situational Strengths design

relationship to performance. Personnel Psychology62(2), 229-258.

Fourthly, Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies.

And next Chan, D., & Schmitt, N. (2017). Situational judgment tests. The Blackwell handbook of personnel selection.

Then finally, Ambady, N. (2003). When familiarity breeds accuracy: Cultural exposure and

facial emotion recognition. Journal of personality and social psychology85(2), 276-290.

Situational judgement test research 2008 – 2019 Part V

Firstly, Elfenbein, H. A., Der Foo, M., White, J., Tan, H. H., & Aik, V. C. (2007). Reading your

counterpart: The benefit of emotion recognition accuracy for effectiveness in negotiation. J

Secondly, Farh, C. I., Seo, M. G., & Tesluk, P. E. (2012). Emotional intelligence, teamwork effectiveness, and job performance: The moderating role of job context. Journal of Applied Psychology.

Thirdly, Heggestad, E. D., & Morrison, M. J. (2008). An inductive exploration of the social effectiveness construct space. Journal of personality.

Fourthly, Hogan, R., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Kaiser, R. B. (2013). Employability and career success:

Situational Strengths Tests

Bridging the gap between theory and reality. Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

And then, Kaplan, S., Cortina, J., Ruark, G., LaPort, K., & Nicolaides, V. (2014). The role of organizational leaders in employee emotion management: A theoretical model. The Leadership Quarterly25(3), 563-580.

Motowidlo, S. J., Dunnette, M. D., & Carter, G. W. (1990). An alternative selection procedure: The low-fidelity simulation. Journal of Applied Psychology75(6), 640-647.

Ng, T. W., Eby, L. T., Sorensen, K. L., & Feldman, D. C. (2005). Predictors of objective and subjective career success: A meta‐ analysis. Personnel psychology58(2), 367-408.

Then finally, Schlegel, K., & Scherer, K. R. (2016). Introducing a short version of the Geneva Emotion Recognition Test (GERT-S): Psychometric properties and construct validation. Behavior research methods, 48(4), 1383-1392.

Strengths design

Situational strengths tests

Firstly, our situational judgement test designs.

Also finally, our Army situational judgement tests.

Our Psychometric Design Toolkit

Firstly, our strengths psychometric ~ Secondly, our psychometric test design ~ Then our personality test design ~ And finally our Realistic Job Preview Design.

Our psychometric test designs

Strengths Design  ~ Realistic Job Preview Design ~ Personality Test Design ~ Situational Judgment Test Design ~ Psychometric Test Design.

situational strengths design

Personality Assessment Research

The focus of this page is personality tests research 2019 and more general personality assessment research.

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Personality Assessment Research

Previous projects that have encompassed personality assessment designs:

  • Fit based personality profiles for a call centre
  • CV-based sifting design (finance and business consultancy sectors)
  • Online competency based sift questionnaires

In 2015 and 2018, Rob Williams Assessment Ltd developed two bespoke personality test designs. These were for the graduate recruiters Talent Window and Hire Window. A positive client recommendation for this project can be found on on Linked-In.

Firstly, my client Talent Window required a rational model of the personality traits typically sought by graduate employers.

Recent personality test innovations

The Bloomberg Financial Test assesses applications for a multitude of financial roles. It is a measure of “financial aptitude” – not a personality test.

The NEO PI-R personality test established a link between Big 5 personality traits and those personality traits found in successful financial traders. Three key personality domains mentioned in this personality test research: Extroversion, Neuroticism and Openness to Experience.

Personality research – Assessment designs

Personality tests vary considerably in length, from short Big Five measures (around 10 minutes) to in-depth measures with 16-32 scales (taking 35-50 minutes). Personality testing is less commonly used at the school-leaver level – compared to the graduate and managerial levels.

Personality is untimed but takes from 5-6 minutes for a Disc-like instrument to 25 mins for a 16PF.

Personality research 2019

Bornstein, R. F. (2003). Behaviorally referenced experimentation
and symptom validation: A paradigm for 21st-century
personality disorder research. Journal of Personality Disorders,
17, 1–18.

Clark, S. L., Muthn, B., Kaprio, J., D’Onofrio, B. M., Viken,
R., & Rose, R. J. (2013). Models and strategies for factor
mixture analysis: An example concerning the structure
underlying psychological disorders.

– – – Personality Assessment Research – – –

Fontana, A., & Rosenbeck, R. (2004). Comparing traditional
and Rasch analyses of the Mississippi PTSD Scale: Revealing
limitations of reverse-scored items.

De Fruyt, F., & Salgado, J. F. (2003). Applied personality
psychology: Lessons learned from the IWO field. European
Journal of Personality, 17(S1), S123–S131.

Dilchert, S., Ones, D. S., & Krueger, R. F. (2014). Maladaptive
personality constructs, measures, and work behaviors.

Guenole, N., Levine, S. J., & Chamorro-Premuzic,
T. (in press). The NEO-PI-R: Factor structure and gender
invariance from exploratory structural equation modeling
analyses in a high-stakes setting.

Ashton, M. C., Cloninger, C. R., & Gough, H. G. (2006).
The international personality item pool and the future of
public-domain personality measures. Journal of Research in
Personality, 40, 84–96.

Personality research Part III

Gore, W. L., & Widiger, T. A. (2013). The DSM-5 dimensional
trait model and five-factor models of general personality.
Guenole, N. (2014). Maladaptive personality at work: Exploring
the darkness. Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

Cockerill, T., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Smillie,
L. D. (2011). Evidence for the validity of dimensions in the
presence of rater source factors.

Hogan, R., & Hogan, J. (2001). Assessing leadership. A view
from the dark side.

Judge, T. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007). The bright and dark sides
of personality: Implications for personnel selection in
individual and team contexts.

Personality assessment research Part IV

Kolenikov, S., & Bollen, K. A. (2012). Testing negative error
variances is a Heywood case a symptom of mispecification?

Krueger, R. F. (1999). The structure of common mental
disorders.

Skodol, A. V. (2012). Initial construction of a maladaptive
personality trait model and inventory for DSM-5.

Lykken, D. T. (1968). Statistical significance in psychological
research. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 151–159.

McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment.

Muthn, L. K., & Muthn, B. (2006). Mplus: User’s guide.

O’Boyle, E. H., Forsyth, D. R., Banks, G. C., & McDaniel,
M. A. (2012). A meta-analysis of the Dark Triad and work
behavior: A social exchange perspective.

– – – Personality Assessment Research – – –

Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. (2002). The Dark Triad of
personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy.

Morey, L. C., Verheul, R., Krueger, R. F., & Siever, L. J.
(2011). Proposed changes in personality and personality
disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5 Part II:
Clinical application. Personality Disorders: Theory,
Research, and Treatment, 2, 23–40.

Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification:
An interval estimation approach. Multivariate
Behavioral Research, 25, 214–12.

– – – Personality Assessment Research – – –

Wille, B., De Fruyt, F., & De Clercq, B. (2014). Fifty shades of
personality: Integrating Five-Factor Model Bright and Dark
sides of personality at work. Industrial & Organizational
Psychology, 7, 121–126.

Woods, M. (2006). Careless responding to reverse-worded items:
Implications for confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of
Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 28, 186–191.

Wright, A. G., Thomas, K. M., Hopwood, C. J., Markon, K. E.,
Pincus, A. L., & Krueger, R. F. (2012). The hierarchical
structure of DSM-5 pathological.

Personality tests research 2019

Bornstein, R. F. (2003). Behaviorally referenced experimentation
and symptom validation: A paradigm for 21st-century
personality disorder research. Journal of Personality Disorders,
17, 1–18.

Clark, S. L., Muthn, B., Kaprio, J., D’Onofrio, B. M., Viken,
R., & Rose, R. J. (2013). Models and strategies for factor
mixture analysis: An example concerning the structure
underlying psychological disorders.

Fontana, A., & Rosenbeck, R. (2004). Comparing traditional
and Rasch analyses of the Mississippi PTSD Scale: Revealing
limitations of reverse-scored items.

De Fruyt, F., & Salgado, J. F. (2003). Applied personality
psychology: Lessons learned from the IWO field. European
Journal of Personality, 17(S1), S123–S131.

Dilchert, S., Ones, D. S., & Krueger, R. F. (2014). Maladaptive
personality constructs, measures, and work behaviors.

Guenole, N., Levine, S. J., & Chamorro-Premuzic,
T. (in press). The NEO-PI-R: Factor structure and gender
invariance from exploratory structural equation modeling
analyses in a high-stakes setting.

Ashton, M. C., Cloninger, C. R., & Gough, H. G. (2006).
The international personality item pool and the future of
public-domain personality measures. Journal of Research in
Personality, 40, 84–96.

Tests research 2019

Personality tests research Part III

Gore, W. L., & Widiger, T. A. (2013). The DSM-5 dimensional
trait model and five-factor models of general personality.

Guenole, N. (2014). Maladaptive personality at work: Exploring
the darkness. Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

Cockerill, T., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Smillie,
L. D. (2011). Evidence for the validity of dimensions in the
presence of rater source factors.

Hogan, R., & Hogan, J. (2001). Assessing leadership. A view
from the dark side.

Judge, T. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007). The bright and dark sides
of personality: Implications for personnel selection in
individual and team contexts.

Personality tests research Part IV

Kolenikov, S., & Bollen, K. A. (2012). Testing negative error
variances is a Heywood case a symptom of mispecification?

Krueger, R. F. (1999). The structure of common mental
disorders.

Skodol, A. V. (2012). Initial construction of a maladaptive
personality trait model and inventory for DSM-5.

Lykken, D. T. (1968). Statistical significance in psychological
research. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 151–159.

McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment.

Muthn, L. K., & Muthn, B. (2006). Mplus: User’s guide.

O’Boyle, E. H., Forsyth, D. R., Banks, G. C., & McDaniel,
M. A. (2012). A meta-analysis of the Dark Triad and work
behavior: A social exchange perspective.

Personality tests research 2019

Research Part V

Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. (2002). The Dark Triad of
personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy.

Morey, L. C., Verheul, R., Krueger, R. F., & Siever, L. J.
(2011). Proposed changes in personality and personality
disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5 Part II:
Clinical application. Personality Disorders: Theory,
Research, and Treatment, 2, 23–40.

Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification:
An interval estimation approach. Multivariate
Behavioral Research, 25, 214–12.

Wille, B., De Fruyt, F., & De Clercq, B. (2014). Fifty shades of
personality: Integrating Five-Factor Model Bright and Dark
sides of personality at work. Industrial & Organizational
Psychology, 7, 121–126.

Woods, M. (2006). Careless responding to reverse-worded items:
Implications for confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of
Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 28, 186–191.

Wright, A. G., Thomas, K. M., Hopwood, C. J., Markon, K. E.,
Pincus, A. L., & Krueger, R. F. (2012). The hierarchical
structure of DSM-5 pathological.

Extra Psychometric Test Practice

Social Desirability Personality Research 2019

Anguiano-Carrasco, C., MacCann, C., Geiger, M., Seybert, J.
M., & Roberts, R. D. (2014). Development of a forcedchoice
measure of typical-performance emotional intelligence.
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33, 83-97.
 
Bartram, D. (2007). Increasing validity with forced-choice
criterion measurement formats. International Journal of
Selection and Assessment, 15, 263-272. doi:10.1111/j.1468-
 
Funder, D. C. (1995). On the accuracy of personality judgment: A
realistic approach. Psychological Review, 102, 652-670.
Personality, 81, 155-170.
 
Colvin, C. R., Block, J., & Funder, D. C. (1995). Overly positive
self-evaluations and personality: Negative implications for
mental health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
 
Funder, D. C. (1995). On the accuracy of personality judgment: A
realistic approach. Psychological Review, 102, 652-670.
 
Jin, K. Y., & Wang, W. C. (2014). Generalized IRT models for
extreme response style. Educational and Psychological
 
Joubert, T., Inceoglu, I., Bartram, D., Dowdeswell, K., & Lin, Y.
(2015). A comparison of the psychometric properties of the
forced choice and Likert scale versions of a personality instrument.
International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 23,
 
Khorramdel, L., & von Davier, M. (2014). Measuring response
styles across the Big Five: A multiscale extension of an
approach using multinomial processing trees. Multivariate
Behavioral Research, 49, 161-177. doi:10.1080/00273171.
Messick, S. J. (1967). The psychology of acquiescence: An interpretation
of research evidence. In I. A. Berg (Ed.), Response
set in personality assessment (pp. 115-145). Chicago, IL:
 
Paulhus, D. L. (2002). Socially desirable responding: The evolution
of a construct. In H. I. Braun, D. N. Jackson, & D. E.

Verbal Reasoning practice test book

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Firstly, Passing Verbal Reasoning Tests book by Rob Williams

Numerical Reasoning practice test book

Secondly, Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests book by Rob Williams

10 personality tips to help your Study Skills

  1. Find time to study – If you manage your time badly, inevitably you will be less productive than if you manage it well. This can lead to increased stress and anxiety levels, especially around exam time.
  2. Keep to a routine – Work in the same place at the same time each day. Also, make sure you have everything you need before you start.
  3. Work to your strengths – Schedule challenging tasks for when you are most alert, and routine ones for when you may be feeling more tired.
  4. Don’t waste time – Rather than reading irrelevant material, skim and scan to help you decide if you need to read something critically and in-depth.
  5. Avoid distractions – Related to above. Switch emails and social media off to prevent your mind wandering while trying to learn new information!
  6. Regularly review your notes – Edit out what you don’t need. Ask yourself the question: “Is this information is relevant to my assignment, and how does it relate to what I already know.”
  7. Vary how you to take notes – For example, use Mind Maps and diagrams to generate ideas and linear notes to focus your ideas for essay or report plans.
  8. Be critical – Make sure that you always add your own comment to every concept or quotation that you write down. Maintain a critical and analytical approach at all times!
  9. Plan your work – If writing an assignment produce a detailed plan before you start to write it. This will make the drafting process much less stressful
  10. Understand different styles  – By understanding different writing styles – such as academic, journal and journalistic styles – you can put what you read into perspective. In particular, you can become more aware of any particular bias.

Our other personality test blogs

Our personality test tips

Financial personality

Bespoke personality test design

Our Culture fit tests

Our personality assessments

Personality test validation service

Our values tests

– – – Personality Assessment Research – – –

Personality test tips. People with question marks above their heads.

Personality Test Tips

Our focus here is on personality test tips.

* * CONTENT UPDATED APRIL 2021 * * *

Our other personality test tips resources

Culture fit test tips

Our personality assessment tips

Values test tips

OPQ personality test tips.

MBTI personality test tips.

DISC Personality test tips

  • Firstly, DISC’s theoretical model is based on Jung’s personality “types” theories.
  • Secondly, DISC has lower construct validity than the OPQ, NEO, PAPI and WAVE personality tests.
  • Thirdly, Employers are looking for certain personality traits in any role. However it’s a bad idea to second guess what those might be.

Passing personality tests

  • Firstly, employers are looking for certain personality traits in any role – as indicators of high job performance in key areas.
  • Secondly, personality test practice is of paramount importance.
  • Go with your initial reactions rather than thinking about each question in detail.
  • Don’t try to guess what type of person they are looking for.
  • Employers are usually looking for several different profiles, and there may be checks within the questionnaire to identify false answers.

Big Five Personality Test tips

Do you work well with others? If you’ve ever thought about this skill and want to know how well you execute it, then this personality test is for you. Big Five personality tests focus on how you work and how well you communicate with others. While it’s a tightly focused test, its results shouldn’t be scoffed at. It gives you insight into whether you should be in a job that has you communicating with others all the time or a loner that gets the job done by yourself.

SHL Personality Test Tips

As two of the most popular personality tests used by UK employers for development, OPQ and NEO practice is important to us.

OPQ personality test tips

  • The OPQ has 32 personality traits grouped into categories such as Sociability, Influence and Thinking Style. For example, the Influence grouping of personality traits includes the personality traits of being Persuasive, Outspoken, Independent-Minded.
  • Check for a “faking scale” which for the OPQ personality test is called the Social Desirability scale. This measures how socially desirable your responses are. An example question with socially desirable responses, such as never lying, that everyone lies.
  • Thirdly, read each personality test question carefully and don’t lose your concentration before you reach the end of the personality test.
  • Check whether you will be doing either the ipsative or normative version. There are three main types of personality test: ipsative (forced-choice); normative; or ipsative (a mixture of normative and ipsative personality test format).
  • There are no time limits when completing such a personality questionnaire.
  • Finally, since this is a personality test, there are no right and wrong answers.

psychometric test tips

16PF5 Personality Test Tips

Please see all of our 16PF personality tips. The 16PF5 personality test is one of the best, but least used personality tests.

Firstly, the 16PF5 has excellent supporting materials.

Secondly, there are readily available personality test reports.

Thirdly, like the NEO personality questionnaire, it’is based on academically rigorous factor analysis.

Points to remember when completing the 16PF5 personality test are:

  • There is a systematic model, based on factor analysis, behind the set of the 16PF5 personality questionnaire’s personality questions.

Personality test tips

  • The 16PF5 profile and many of the 16PF5 personality test reports show the global personality factors. These global personality factors are very similar to the NEO’s Big Five personality model: Extraversion/Introversion; Conscientiousness; Agreeableness; Openness to Experience and Neuroticism.

Personality feedback – Analysts

Members of this group possess “O” and “D” as their common traits

  1. OCED (Commander: Commander)
  2. OUED (Debater: Royal court advisor)
  3. OCID (Architect: Battle strategist)
  4. OUID (Logician: Magic researcher)

Personality feedback -Diplomats

Members of this group possess “O” and “A” as their common traits,

  1. OCEA (Protagonist: Protagonist)
  2. OUEA (Campaigner: The Wanderer)
  3. OCIA (Advocate: Wizard)
  4. OUIA (Mediator: Diplomat)

Personality feedback – Sentinels

Members of this group possess “L” and “C” as their common traits.

  1. LCID (Logistician: Magic scientist?) (so similar to logician)
  2. LCIA (Defender: Paladin)
  3. LCED (Executive: Puppet master)
  4. LCEA (Consul: Healer)

Personality feedback – Explorers

Members of this group possess “L” and “U” as their common traits.

  1. LUID (Virtuoso: Inventor)
  2. LUIA (Adventurer: Adventurer)
  3. LUED (Entrepreneur: Merchant/ Salesman)

Personality Test Tips

Work personality test design. Faces and different personalities

Personality

Welcome to our bespoke personality tests info

Our Psychometric Test Designs

We are specialists in bespoke personality tests design, or personality assessment design. 

  • We offer both personality designs for assessment and for development purposes.
  • Also, we offer access to the most widely used personality questionnaires.
  • Please contact us to discuss how Rob Williams Assessment Ltd can help your company in any personality test design projects.

Bespoke Personality Tests

We will work with you to design the most suitable work styles tool to suit your needs. Examples of the typical personality test format can be found here.

Our Bespoke Personality Questionnaire design process aims to:

  • include dimensions identified as key to the role being assessed
  • reflect the personality, attitudinal and motivational aspects of the role-specific dimensions
  • have face valid questions
  • be capable of completion in 20 minutes approx.
  • adopt a single-stimulus question format (Likert scale)
  • adopt a normative format of scoring utilising a sten look-up table (for each personality scale)
  • use a Social Desirability scale to deal with the issue of faking or extreme scoring patterns.

Premium Personality Test Practice

Work personality test design. Woman at work.

Key personality test design stages

The ideal for personality questionnaire design is to have sets of items on each  scale measuring the same latent variable – as described by the scale name and the scale descriptors. This is what is meant by the internal reliability of a personality questionnaire’s set of scales.

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General Personality test Designs

We are not aligned with a particular test publisher. Thus, we can offer an independent perspective on any personality questionnaire design. Whilst we recommend designing bespoke personality tests, we can also advise on the most commonly used, off-the-shelf personality tests. These are listed below: firstly as general personality questionnaires; and then as personality questionnaires with specific applications.

  • SHL’s Occupational Personality Questionnaire (the 32-scale OPQ).
  • Kenexa’s OPI.
  • OPP’s 16PF5 Personality Questionnaire, MBTI Step I, MBTI Step II and the California Personality Inventory.
  • Saville Consulting’s Wave Styles.
  • Talent Q’s Dimensions.

Personality Values Test Design 

We can design values assessment exercises design to focus on any values framework.

Values based recruitment may involve values based structured interviews, values based selection centres, values based situational judgement tests and/or values based personality tests.

 –  –  –   Our bespoke personality traits design  –  –  –

Values based personality tests

Personality tests can be designed to measure values – as well as job specific constructs or competencies. As with a situational judgement based design, values based personality tests can serve as a highly effective realistic job preview, or self-selection tool.

If it is important to differentiate personality traits from values, then values can be seen as enduring goals, whilst personality better describes enduring dispositions.

Whenever a values based personality test is being used as part of a values based recruitment process, its vital to remember that personality influences motivational processes differently to how values drive motivational behaviour. Values impact goal content whereas personality traits impact the efforts that individuals make towards their goals.

MBTI Personality Test Tips

This personality inventory is based on the psychological types described by Carl Jung and developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother Katharine Briggs to make the theory accessible to people. The theory is that seemingly random variation in behavior is due to basic difference in individuals’ preferences for perception and judgement, resulting in 16 different personality types. The original MBTI® assessment has spawned an endless array of imitators and innovators who have developed new assessments based on the 16-type system. 

Big Five Personality Test Tips

Otherwise known as the 5-Factor Model, this assessment groups various traits together into five main categories – extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism and openness to experience. The Big Five is the most widely accepted personality model in the academic community and the basis for most personality research, but it is less popular outside of academic circles because it does not categorize people into easily summarized types. There is no one “official” Big Five test, but many researchers have developed their own assessments based on this theory. 

DISC Personality Test Tips

The DISC personality profile was designed to measure behavioral styles and describes people in terms of their levels of dominance, influence, steadiness, and compliance. Assessments based on the DISC model are used widely in organizations to develop leadership skills, management training and team building. Free DISC tests are less common, as this model hasn’t gotten much attention outside of the business world. 

Enneagram Personality Test Tips

The Enneagram began with a spiritual practice, not a scientific one, and conceptualizes personality as a dynamic system driven by emotions, fears, and beliefs. Traditionally, Enneagram knowledge was passed on by spiritual teachers, rather than formalized in an assessment. Recently, though, the system has become more popular, leading to the development of several assessments that aim to determine your Enneagram type. 

Bespoke Personality tests design

Work personality test design. Executive team in work attire.

How have psychometric tests evolved over the years?

  • The basic principles of test development did not change significantly until around 2010. In the previous decade, ability and personality tests have evolved considerably in terms of the uses to which they are put; and in what specific assessments can measure.
  • Development of ability tests that are based on structured learning principles
  • Adaptive tests and integrity tests are already widely used in the American educational system.

Work personality test design. Colleagues listening to instruction.

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Specific Personality Assessment Designs

  • Hogan Development Survey (de-railers)
  • Kenexa and SHL’s Motivation Questionnaires
  • FIRO-B (relationship building)
  • MBTI for Teams (team relationships) and MBTI for Coaching
  • EJI and EIQ (emotional intelligence measures)
  • Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode (conflict management)
  • SHL’s Corporate Culture Questionnaire and Customer Contact Styles Questionnaire

Work Personality Tests Examples

In our opinion, the typical stages of such a personality questionnaire design project should be:

Firstly, investigate the job role(s) using the most appropriate types of job analysis.

Secondly, study the job analysis results to determine the personality areas or competencies that measure effective work performance within this particular context.

Thirdly, you have what you need to write questions for each personality area or competency.

Thus, you are able to produce a trial personality questionnaire and deliver this to a representative sample of current employees in the role(s).

Now, you can determine the best way to validate the questionnaire: (a) For example, using performance data such as sales figures, or appraisal ratings. (b) Designing a performance rating form for completion by managers of the sample group.

Next, produce scoring keys for the personality questionnaire scales.

Then, trial the personality questionnaire alongside the performance rating form.

Next, analyse the trial data and validation data to determine the personality scales and specific questions that are most predictive of work performance.

Finally, produce the final questionnaire, norm tables and scoring key.

Personality traits

Talent Gene Personality Test Validations

  • Strengths test design.
  • Values test design.
  • Validating data sets for above two tests.
  • Improving reliability and validity.

Personality Test Distortion 

Social desirability scales 

You will probably not be able to fake this personality profile throughout the whole of the test. Your responses could easily be identified by the faking / social desirability scale used by the personality assessment tool. Then you could be asked to explain your “unusual” test taking style by one of the recruiters and/or be asked to take the personality assessment again.

Lie scales

Given the high potential for faking a personality test there are multiple ways built-in to test how reliable a candidate’s responses are. One of the most effective ways is what’s called a social desirability, or lie-scale.

For example, a personality test question may ask you to rate statements such as I have never told a lie or I have never been late for an appointment. Be wary of trying to come across as a perfect angel here. Everyone has told a lie at least once and everyone has been late at least some of the time.

Work personality test design. Man with picture of clouds where his head should be.

Bespoke Personality tests design

Social Desirability – Personality scale Interpretation

A sten score of 8, 9 or 10 should be treated with caution and the respondent questioned accordingly at the interview stage – to validate their personality profile. The key point being that an extreme Social Desirability score indicates the respondent may be trying to distort their results by answering in an overly positive manner. As with any personality scale individuals have different social desirable tendencies so it’s difficult to distinguish genuine responses (for such positive attributes) from respondents intentionally distorting their answers.

A high Social Desirability score could reflect preferred behavioural style. In our opinion, it does not prove the respondent is lying / faking. This reinforces the need to validate any personality test profile with a follow-up interview. Then, to probe for interview evidence of such positive attributes.

Using Social Desirability as a personality trait

In our opinion, I have never told a lie, is one good example. Everyone has lied at some point. So, denying this is to answer in a socially desirable way. In fact, in our opinion, “Social desirability” describes two things:

  1. The tendency to exaggerate positive behaviours when answering a personality questionnaire. There is a tendency for a small percentage of personality questionnaire respondents to agree with seemingly desirable questions.
  2.  It also describes the moderation of negative behaviours. In other words, to disagree with socially undesirable questions (Zickar & Gibby, 2006).

It is therefore best practise in popular personality questionnaire design to use a Social Desirability scale to address such faking issues.

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Personality Tests

There are many personality tests used in career guidance and selection. Some tests display the person personality profile along 16 to 20 different dimensions.

The most popular of these tests are:

  • California Personality Inventory (CPI)
  • Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  • Edward’s Personal Preferences Schedule (EPPS).

Personality APPLICATIONS

So, sales representatives tend to score high on extroversion and dominance. Whereas chemists tend to be thinking introverts.

Personality Factors

A test like the 16PF has 20 factors (16 primary and 4 secondary). Using 20 personality factors, there are 110 possible combinations of two extreme scores (either high or low).

The advantage of these tests is that there are very comprehensive. This validity procedure established which occupations tend to score high on which dimensions.

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Personality Type Tools

Personality Test Trait Research

There are particular personality traits which employers look for. It therefore makes sense that our My Strengths practice personality test questions available for free. These focus on those personality traits most measured by employers.

Big Five Personality Test Research 2018

Across variables, BIg Five personality test researchers have found strong evidence to support the view that conscientiousness is highly predictive of job performance.

Personality Test Tips

The researchers identified some interesting caveats and boundary conditions. Conscientiousness is a weaker predictor of job performance in “high-complexity” occupations). Conscientious people excel in customer service jobs. And other low to medium complexity occupations.

Furthermore, the researchers found that individuals high in conscientiousness do better in Health Care than, say, Law Enforcement.

Firstly, Bartram’s increasing validity with forced-choice criterion measurement formats.

Secondly, Block’s Q-sort method in personality assessment.

Third is Clemans’ analytical and empirical examination of some properties of ipsative personality measures.

Fourth is Goldberg’s development of markers for the Big-Five personality factor structure. 

Fifth is Kaemmer’s Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Manual for administration and scoring. 

Sixth is Markon’s Role of the DSM-6 personality trait model.

Next is Naumann’s Resilient Big Five have emerged as the paradigm for personality trait psychology.

After which is O’Connor’s Quantitative review of the comprehensiveness of the five-factor model in relation to popular personality.

Penultimately, Roberts’ development of a forced choice measure of typical-performance emotional intelligence.

Last but not least, Salgado’s predicting job performance using FFM and non-FFM personality measures. 

Personality Test Tips

Future research could explore applicant reactions, such as perceived test fairness and appropriateness of selection instrument, among candidates who complete either or both the SJT and its gamified version to further support the effectiveness of using game elements into selection methods. Also, another limitation of the gamified SJT might be any accessibility issues for candidates who may not have the hardware or internet connection required to try the assessment.

Recently, a number of organizations have employed the use of gamification and game‐based assessments in employee recruitment and selection. However, no published empirical studies have explored the validity of gamification in assessing candidates’ skills. Our study supports that converting a traditional SJT to a gamified assessment, in order to effectively assess candidates’ soft skills, such as resilience, adaptability, and decision‐making can be of value. We first presented the development of an SJT to form the basis of the gamified assessment method.

How are Personality Measures used?

Guion & Gottier (1965), “its difficult… to advocate … the use of personality measures in most situations as a basis for making employment decisions“. Still, personality measures are widely used in personnel selection. The continuing use reflect the view held by personnel practitioners that personality partly predicts behaviour.

One of the reasons for the low personality – job performance correlations is the lack of conceptual link between traits and work performance. Thus, it is unreasonable to expect personality measures to generalise across jobs.

An attempt to correlate a battery of personality traits with job performance regardless the nature of the job, would result in weak coefficients.

Different Types of Personality Test

NEO personality test

  • This is for one of the most well-researched personality tests used in both the US and the UK.
  • There is considerable research supporting the “Big Five” model of personality.
  • Like the 16PF5 personality questionnaire – the NEO is based on academically rigorous factor analysis.
  • There is a systematic model behind the set of NEO personality questions.

The MBTI is a very popular alternative to these tests. The MBTI:

  • Uses four basic bipolar dimensions.
  • Classifies the person into one of 16 possible personality descriptions. 

Once you complete a Big Five personality test, you’ get these five scores:

  • Agreeableness
  • Extraversion
  • Emotional Stability
  • Openness to Experience / Intellect
  • Conscientiousness

With the Big Five, as with most science-based psychological measures, you’re going to see a “normal distribution,” meaning there is a bell curve. Most of the population is going to be somewhere in the middle, with a few “outliers” on both sides.

Most people are going to be somewhere in the middle of, say, extraversion, meaning that most people would identify as both introverted and extraverted (this is completely normal). One problem with the whole notion of “types” is that they make people think their personality is more extreme and black-and-white.

Big Five Personality Traits

According to type doctrine, “personality” is less fundamental than “personality type” but there’s no scientific evidence for personality “types.” In fact, personality can change considerably over the span of a person’s lifetime.

The ‘Big Five’ is the most researched theory of personality. The typicl Big Five personality test format has five answer options, based on a Likert scale.

Wheres, with type-based personality tests you cannot provide nuance to your answer. Instead, type indicators typically have 2-3 answer options – none of which truly fit your own personality.

Personality test tips

Many of the UK’s and US’s leading test publishers have used Rob Williams Assessment’s to calculate and prove the reliability of their newly developed psychometric tests.

Big Five personality research

A team of scientists led by Michael Wilmot of the University of Toronto conducted a meta-analysis of 92 studies. They explored the relationship between conscientiousness and various occupational variables. For example, on-the-job competence, procrastination, leadership, organizational commitment, adaptability, job satisfaction, and burnout.

Across variables, the researchers found strong evidence to support the view that conscientiousness is highly predictive of job performance.

The researchers identified some interesting caveats and boundary conditions. Conscientiousness is a weaker predictor of job performance in “high-complexity” occupations). Conscientious people excel in customer service jobs. And other low to medium complexity occupations.

Furthermore, the researchers found that individuals high in conscientiousness do better in Health Care than, say, Law Enforcement.

The graph below reveals the job sectors in which conscientious individuals are most likely to excel, with Health Care leading the pack.

Bespoke Personality tests

Big Five personality test research

Conscientiousness and job performance
“Summary of meta-analyses of conscientiousness and occupational performance […]. Diamonds … [+]WILMOT & ONES (2019)

The researchers suggest that organizations should do more to harness conscientious workers’ aptitudes and motivations. Conscientious individuals are motivated by status, acceptance, and predictability.

personality test tips

Few individual differences variables have occupational effects as potent and pervasive as conscientiousness. The researchers recommend that ‘…every individual, organizational, and societal decision maker to better understand, develop, and apply the valuable human capital resource that is conscientiousness.

Personality Test Trait Research

We led a UK-wide project managing over twenty occupational psychologists including leading global psychometricians. Over a fourteen-month period this project encompassed the following: situational judgement tests (SJT) design, realistic job preview design, ability test design (numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, problem-solving ability test design, spatial reasoning test design) and personality questionnaire design.

Personality tests measure personality traits. There are particular personality traits which employers look for. It therefore makes sense that our My Strengths practice personality test questions available for free. These focus on those personality traits most measured by employers.

The latest personality test research

Personality psychologists tend to divide personality into five core dimensions: openness to experiences, agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism.

Any guesses as to which dimension might be most predictive of occupational performance? If you guessed extraversion, you’d be wrong. If you guessed emotional stability, you’d be wrong again.

The truth is that 100+ years of psychological research has shown conscientiousness – that is, the tendency toward self-efficacy, orderliness, achievement, and self-discipline – to be the best predictor of job performance. New research forthcoming in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences offers an in-depth examination of why this is the case, and when it might not be true.

personality test tips

Big Five personality research

A team of scientists led by Michael Wilmot of the University of Toronto conducted a meta-analysis of 92 studies. They explored the relationship between conscientiousness and various occupational variables. For example, on-the-job competence, procrastination, leadership, organizational commitment, adaptability, job satisfaction, and burnout.

Key Big Five personality test research papers

Welcome to our first feature on our new Big Five personality research series.

Firstly, Bartram’s increasing validity with forced-choice criterion measurement formats.

Secondly, Block’s Q-sort method in personality assessment.

Third is Clemans’ analytical and empirical examination of some properties of ipsative personality measures.

Fourth is Goldberg’s development of markers for the Big-Five personality factor structure. 

Fifth is Kaemmer’s Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Manual for administration and scoring. 

Sixth is Markon’s Role of the DSM-6 personality trait model.

Next is Naumann’s Resilient Big Five have emerged as the paradigm for personality trait psychology.

After which is O’Connor’s Quantitative review of the comprehensiveness of the five-factor model in relation to popular personality.

Penultimately, Roberts’ development of a forced choice measure of typical-performance emotional intelligence.

Last but not least, Salgado’s predicting job performance using FFM and non-FFM personality measures. 

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Personality Test Design

Rob Williams Assessment Ltd have considerable experience in assessing the validity of psychometric tests. This is a one of the key final stages in any psychometric test design. In addition to test the SJT reliability and to advise on suitable cut-off scores which minimise any adverse impact (due to gender, age, ethnic group and disability).

Many of the UK’s and US’s leading test publishers have used Rob Williams Assessment’s to assist with ensuring the psychometric properties of their trial psychometric tests. We consult on how to improve any test’s psychometric properties, particularly the test’s internal reliability and construct validity.

Personality test trends

Candidates may also have to take a personality test as part of the recruitment process. There is a vast array of personality tests, which pose questions about a candidate’s behaviour and personal preferences. A typical question may ask whether you prefer attending parties or staying home with a good book. These personality tests help employers to determine whether a candidate has the right profile for the role.

Biodata questions

Personality biodata questions measure a variety of constructs, including attitudes, personality attributes, interests, skills/abilities, past events and experiences. An individual’s learning history is of particular interest.

Which personality traits do employers look for?

Sackett and Walmsley used a well-established model for measuring personality known as the Big Five as the theoretical basis for their study. In the Big Five model, an individual’s personality can be described using measures of five personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness to experience.

The researchers analyzed a large set of data on job interviews to find out which personality traits companies look for when they’re hiring. Much of the data came from an analysis of structured job interviews, in which employers assess candidates for particular personality traits in order to make sure they’re a good fit for the job and overall work environment. For example, a company that is hiring a salesperson would want to assess job candidates for the traits of extraversion and friendliness to make sure they’re likely to work well with customers.

After crunching the numbers, Sackett and Walmsley found that conscientiousness was by far the most highly sought after personality attribute for job applicants. Agreeableness–being cooperative, flexible and tolerant–was the second most prized personality trait.

The researchers also analyzed data indicating the specific skills and qualities needed to be successful at over a thousand different jobs, drawn from a Department of Labor database called O*NET. They wanted to find out which of the Big Five personality traits are most often cited as important qualities for success across the entire American workforce.

The researchers found that overall attributes related to conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability were considered important for a wide variety of jobs from construction to health care.

How Personality Type affects Your Career

It may even have define your career choice. In our opinion, most ENTJs prefer leadership roles and managing work projects.

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Personality type career guidance

We all know one person who loves the job. Another who just hates upper management politics. another who doesn’t want to deal with people.

Can you get promoted in a way that keeps you using your personality authentically. Unfortunately, to be successful you have to understand firstly your personality type. Secondly, the way it will interact with the people around you.

Personality type career mismatches

Your personality type certainly affects the way you think and act. Plus, other people’s perceptions of you.

This isn’t a complicated idea, but it is a critical one. Your personality type and any misperceptions others have about it are likely to self perpetuate and drive your career. It’s a feedback loop, regardless of whether or not it’s positive or negative; if you’re unhappy with your job and others know it, you’re likely to become more unhappy about your job. If your personality type doesn’t fit your job, you’re likely to be unhappy there.

Personality type career guidance

Career success requires finding a job that matches your personality traits. The idea becomes doubly true once you start moving up the ladder. This is why you can guess what department somebody is from just by their attitude toward the company.  So before you accept a personality-type based promotion, you need to know what jobs you can and can’t do.

Our Practice assessment books 

Brilliant Passing Verbal Reasoning Tests

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Personality type career guidance

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3) Focus groups

Thirdly, semi-structured focus group format represented the most suitable job analysis technique to use.

4) Role survey

Fourthly, a role survey based on the bank’s competency framework, with two questions per competency. Survey results informed the item writing process. The final 5-10 minute survey had two banks of questions with the stems:

  • How important do you do each of the following on a daily basis?
  • How important are the following to your job?

Candidate Experience Briefing

A separate briefing detailed the client style and language (US English) needs. The main aims from a “Candidate Experience” perspectives included:

  • Reflecting the company brand
  • Engaging job applicants
  • Providing some elements of a realistic job preview
  • Overall look and feel to be consistent

Focus Group Briefing

Firstly, focuses on how best to structure the upcoming focus group sessions. Secondly, a consideration of the outputs required. Thirdly, how individual consultants could best run their focus group sessions. The focus group aims were to confirm the role profile interview data; engender key stakeholder support for the blended assessment project (and any associated changes that the new tests required); and to complete a few final visionary interviews.

Work Personality Test Designs

We will work with you on any work personality test designs, including validation projects.

Or to design the most suitable work styles tool to suit your needs.

Our Bespoke work Personality assessment designs process:

  • reflect the personality, attitudinal and motivational aspects of the role-specific dimensions
  • have face valid questions
  • be capable of completion in 20 minutes approx.
  • adopt a single-stimulus question format (Likert scale)
  • adopt a normative format of scoring utilising a sten look-up table (for each personality scale)
  • use a Social Desirability scale to deal with the issue of faking or extreme scoring patterns

Work Personality Assessment Designs – internal reliability

There are many ways to statistically measure the internal reliability of each scale on a personality questionnaire. Probably the most common is Chronbach Alpha. The advantage of using this measure of a personality test’s internal reliability is the agreement in the literature of what represents an acceptable Chronbach’s Alpha score for any personality questionnaire scale. A score above .7 indicates an internally reliable scale.

Work Personality Test Designs

WORK PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT FAKING

One of the commonest criticisms of personality tests has been their fakeability. All personality assessment output relates to the candidate’s own answers and any pertinent points can be discussed at interview.

Test developers can build-in strategies to make faking more difficult, such as using different types of social desirability scale. Giving a consistently false picture is more difficult with a robust personality questionnaire. It also assumes that the candidate knows enough about the interviewer and their prospective employer to be able to guess at the ‘correct’ personality profile. A lengthy completion time may also indicate that a candidate has crafted their answers around what they consider to be a ‘correct’ personality profile.

Work Personality Test Designs

WORK PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT EXAMPLE – THE MBTI

The MBTI® personality type instrument indicates an individual’s preferred behavioral styles. In particualr for interacting, using information and making decisions. It does not provide any indication of ability or suitability for a role. People of all types can do anything. However their natural tendency or first instinct may be to act in a certain manner.

There is research to suggest that people of certain types may find some professions more attractive. However there is no research to suggest that they will perform better than people of other types.

Our psychometric test designs

Strengths Design  ~ Realistic Job Preview Design ~ Personality Test Design ~ Situational Judgment Test Design ~ Psychometric Test Design.

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