Category Archives: psychometric test design

In this Category, you can firstly find all of our most useful and up-to-date psychometric test design information.

Secondly, you can find all of the test tips and test practice on our site.

We hope that you find all of our psychometric test design resources useful.

Rob Williams Assessment Ltd specialise in designing highly predictive psychometric solutions. 

We work across a wide range of sectors and job roles. Our tailor-made psychometric offerings are as unique as our clients’ organisations.

Our organisation prides itself on client satisfaction. We have many positive LinkedIn reviews from our big client projects.

 

Personality Big Five

Personality is at the heart of how we deal with the world. As individuals our unique personalities are powerful predictors of the way in which we respond across a broad range of different situations.

In short, personality can be seen as the underlying pattern of thoughts and feelings that influence what we are likely to do. For personality to affect our behaviour in this way, it must also be consistent and stable, although obviously it will be influenced by context and culture.

At a theoretical level psychologists have studied personality for over 100 years. Comparatively recently, over the last 50 years, a consensus has emerged and there is now agreement that the Five Factor Model (FFM) represents the best structure for human personality. Psychologists agree that these five factors capture the most important and basic personality differences between people; or as some researchers describe them, they are the ‘primary colours’ of personality (Trickey & Hogan, 1998).

Openness to Experience:

Playful, curious, imaginative, creative, open- minded, seeks novelty, forward looking/ visionary.

Conscientiousness:

Orderly, committed, confident (sense of mastery), achievement oriented, reliable, self- disciplined.

Extraversion:

Active, energetic, thrill-seeking, enthusiastic, assertive, interactive, friendly.

Agreeableness:

Accommodating, loyal/trusting, compassionate, altruistic, steady, cooperative, forgiving/tolerant.

Emotional Stability: Calm, even-tempered, positive, resilient/robust, deliberate, easy- going, regulated.

Like many concepts in psychology, there are a number of people who can claim to be the fathers of the FFM, but it’s worth mentioning that the original breakthrough came as a result of the re- analysis of work conducted by Raymond Cattell in the late 1940’s (Cattell, 1946; Russell & Karol, 1994). He constructed a personality model based on the analysis of natural language. The idea was that a

‘lexical’ approach would identify an exhaustive list of words used to describe personality, and thus of all the possible personality traits.

Personality And Life

To illustrate the richness of the relationship between personality and a range of human attributes, here are some example findings for each of the Big Five factors:

Openness to Experience

Openness is related to a person’s in-built values system. People who are ‘open to experience’ are tolerant and accepting and see everyone as equally deserving of justice and equality (Douglas, Bore & Munro, 2016).

Conscientiousness

Conscientious people respect orderliness, duty, achievement, and self-discipline, and are concerned with increasing their competence. The factor is also related to conformity and tradition (Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz & Knafo, 2002).

With respect to the rest of the Big Five, Conscientiousness correlates weakly (and negatively) with Neuroticism, and Agreeableness. It does not appear to be related to the other factors (Van der Linden, Te Nijenhuis & Bakker, 2010).

Extraversion

Extroverts are often assertive, active and sociable. They can also be hedonistic, and actively seek excitement and pleasure.

with Openness to Experience (Van der Linden, Te Nijenhuis & Bakker, 2010).

Agreeableness

Those with Agreeable personalities place an emphasis on compassion, generosity and trust. They are less concerned with power, achievement or ego-related activities.

Generally high levels of agreeableness are related to good life adjustment (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999).

Neuroticism

Neuroticism, or the lack of Emotional Stability over time, is negatively related to:

  • Self-esteem, self-efficacy and internal locus of control (Judge, Erez, Bono, & Thoresen, 2002).

The reactive and impulsive aspects of Neuroticism relate positively to:

  • Hedonism (pleasure without responsibility) and negatively to benevolence and conformity (Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, & Knafo, 2002).

Long term research has demonstrated that Neuroticism is related:

  • Inability to cease using alcohol or drugs, being unable to adjust to problems
  • Mental health issues (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999.)
  • With regard to the other factors, Neuroticism correlates weakly and negatively with Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. It also has a weak negative relationship with Extraversion and Openness (Van der Linden, Te Nijenhuis & Bakker, 2010).

Personality And Work

  • Predictive of both job competencies and more specific work behaviours
  • Such as: attendance, worker turnover, management potential, leadership and occupational health.
  • Correlations run from -1.0 (perfect negative) to +1.0 (perfect positive). Not much, especially continuous attributes like human personality, ever gets close to -1.0 or +1.0.

Rob Williams latest book 

Are you chasing a job that you really want, but need to take a verbal reasoning test to get it? With the help of this book, you’ll sharpen your skills and quickly become confident in your ability to pass. 

Brilliant Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests book – also available for download from the Apple Store. 

Screening test candidates

Screening

We cover both bespoke pretesting and bespoke screening tests. Screening tests can help you identify which applicants are a good match for the role and for your company culture.

These are more valid than cv’s which can leave recruiters to fill in the gaps between what’s written and what’s actually relevant. Skills tests during the application stage help filter out applicants who don’t have the skills you need. 

Continue reading Screening
Financial Personality online private tuition tools

Financial Personality

Financial aptitude measures by a personality test

The first thing I noticed was that the international test publisher Hogrefe Group describing the role that personality plays in trading (on the financial stock markets).

The Bloomberg Financial Test  made me interested because it is a measure of “financial aptitude” – not a personality test.

Also, Barclays are doing some interesting personality research in this area. Primarily, individual financial preferences for investing. This personality research is very innovative. I predict that other financial institutions may offer similar personality-based profiling for their investors.

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Pandemic impact on personal finances

The coronavirus outbreak has sent a shockwave through the finances of millions of people in the UK.

The effect has not been universal, nor has it been equal. Your age, your job, where you live, and the pre-virus state of your finances will all make a difference to how well you can cope.

For a start, there has been the effect on income. For those who work, the amount of money coming in depends mostly on their wages.

More than nine million people have been off work but paid by the state to stay in their jobs – in other words, placed on furlough.

The government, to date, has paid 80% of someone’s wages. Not every employer can afford to top this up.

That has meant a 20% pay cut for millions of people. Some may have had bigger cuts, as the scheme pays only the first £2,500 of the monthly wage.

Personality test research

Across variables, BIg Five personality test researchers have found strong evidence to support the view that conscientiousness is highly predictive of job performance.

The researchers identified some interesting caveats and boundary conditions. Conscientiousness is a weaker predictor of job performance in “high-complexity” occupations). Conscientious people excel in customer service jobs. And other low to medium complexity occupations.

Furthermore, the researchers found that individuals high in conscientiousness do better in Health Care than, say, Law Enforcement.

The graph below reveals the job sectors in which conscientious individuals are most likely to excel, with Health Care leading the pack.

Big Five personality research

Conscientiousness and job performance
“Summary of meta-analyses of conscientiousness and occupational performance […]. Diamonds … [+]WILMOT & ONES (2019)

The researchers suggest that organizations should do more to harness conscientious workers’ aptitudes and motivations. Conscientious individuals are motivated by status, acceptance, and predictability.

Few individual differences variables have occupational effects as potent and pervasive as conscientiousness. The researchers recommend that ‘…every individual, organizational, and societal decision maker to better understand, develop, and apply the valuable human capital resource that is conscientiousness.

Psychometric fingerprint

There’s valuable information and insights that can be gleaned from ‘how’ a candidate plays a game or completes an assessment, such as their response time or the choices they make. In the past, assessing candidates was the equivalent of measuring footballers simply by the number of goals they score. Now, so much more information can be generated. For example, a footballer’s ‘heat map’ can show their movement on the pitch, whether they make productive runs, whether they track-back etc. A similar level of analysis is now possible in assessment.Personality Test TipsThe vast number of data points that are now included in traditional, gamified and game-based assessments gives you more information to interpret, so you can make more accurate decisions about your candidates. Also, because the way each of us processes information and responds when we’re assessed is unique, it’s now possible to create a ‘psychometric fingerprint’ for each candidate. Knowing not only what score a candidate achieved but how they went about it can help you to prevent cheating and spot potential

We led a UK-wide project managing over twenty occupational psychologists including leading global psychometricians. Over a fourteen-month period this project encompassed the following: situational judgement tests (SJT) design, realistic job preview design, ability test design (numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, problem-solving ability test design, spatial reasoning test design) and personality questionnaire design.

Personality Test Trait Research

Personality tests measure personality traits. There are particular personality traits which employers look for. It therefore makes sense that our My Strengths practice personality test questions available for free. These focus on those personality traits most measured by employers.

Big Five Personality Test Research 2018

Firstly, Bartram’s increasing validity with forced-choice criterion measurement formats.

Secondly, Block’s Q-sort method in personality assessment.

Third is Clemans’ analytical and empirical examination of some properties of ipsative personality measures.

Fourth is Goldberg’s development of markers for the Big-Five personality factor structure. 

Fifth is Kaemmer’s Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Manual for administration and scoring. 

Sixth is Markon’s Role of the DSM-6 personality trait model.

Next is Naumann’s Resilient Big Five have emerged as the paradigm for personality trait psychology.

After which is O’Connor’s Quantitative review of the comprehensiveness of the five-factor model in relation to popular personality.

Penultimately, Roberts’ development of a forced choice measure of typical-performance emotional intelligence.

Last but not least, Salgado’s predicting job performance using FFM and non-FFM personality measures. 

10 personality tips to help your Study Skills

  1. Find your best time to study. 
  2. Keep to a routine. Work in the same place at the same time each day. Also, make sure you have everything you need before you start.
  3. Work to your strengths. Schedule challenging tasks for when you are most alert. Routine ones for when you’re tired.
  4. Don’t waste time. Skim and scan before reading something in-depth.
  5. Avoid distractions. Switch emails and social media off to prevent your mind wandering !
  6. Regularly review your notes. Edit out what you don’t need. Ask yourself, how does it relate to what I already know.
  7. Vary how you to take notes – For example, use Mind Maps and diagrams to generate ideas.
  8. Be critical. Maintain a critical and analytical approach at all times!
  9. Plan your work. So, produce a detailed plan first.
  10. Understand different styles.

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MBTI Change Readiness.

MBTI Change Readiness

Welcome to our MBTI Change Readiness. Or change readiness (by type).

ENFP Change Readiness

Change is an exciting word for ENFPs. These individuals are one of seven personality types who are most likely to be excited by change. They are also fond of variety, so going somewhere new, trying their hand at a new skill, or being around a new set of people piques their curiosity. Routine, everyday experiences can make them bored and de-motivated. If the change involves moving to a new location, they may struggle with saying goodbye to friends and loved ones or letting go of relationships.

  • Give them time to talk about the change and all the possibilities and implications related to it.
  • Explain the overall reason for the change. Where are you headed? What is the goal?
  • Paint a picture or vision of where you see yourself (or them) in the future.
  • Recognize the personal impact of this change. How will their personal needs be dealt with?
  • Demonstrate that you care.
  • Include them in planning.
  • Give them plenty of options and be prepared to answer lots of questions.
  • Understand that they like options, flexibility, and an open-ended plan.

MBTI Change Readiness

ENTP Change Readiness

ENTPs get a rush of excitement when a change or new option is put on the table. Rarely scared of a risk, ENTPs are one of seven personality types most likely to appreciate change. They tend to get bored by a repetitive routine or a predictable lifestyle, so any time a new option is presented they tend to respond with enthusiasm and curiosity rather than dread.

  • Give them a chance to be heard and have a voice in decisions.
  • Keep lines of communication open – answer questions.
  • Give them a general plan or direction to tinker with and develop.
  • They appreciate options, and will likely generate more and more.
  • Give them an opportunity to envision the future and influence changes.
  • Explain the logic of the change. Why is this happening?
  • Explain the systematic changes involved in the development.
  • Explain the goals and overall structure of the change.
  • Be fair and equitable.
  • Give them time to gather information and explore options.
  • Give them room to question goals and adjust plans as the process unfolds.

INFP Change Readiness

INFPs need a little time alone to reflect on changes and figure out whether the changes align with their values and desires. They hate feeling pushed or pressured into anything without having a chance to ruminate on it. That said, INFPs are one of seven types most likely to be excited by change. They enjoy variety, new possibilities, and tend to get bored when life feels monotonous and repetitive. The biggest struggle for INFPs is leaving loved ones if moving locations is a part of the change. They tend to be very attached to their relationships and will need a process or method of maintaining relationships.

MBTI Change Readiness

  • Give them time to think through the change before asking for an immediate response.
  • Ask them what they think about everything related to the change.
  • Give them time to reflect on the changes before taking action.
  • Explain the future vision you have. What is this change going to mean for the future? Stimulate their imagination by painting a vision of the future.
  • Give them a general direction, but don’t overwhelm them with details and structure.
  • Recognize the personal impacts this change might have on them.
  • Explain the values that underlie the change. Are the motivations ethical?
  • Explain the general parameters of the change. Give them options.
  • Loosen up, don’t micro-manage them, don’t seem panicky.

INTP Change Readiness

Change can be very exciting for INTPs. These types are typically flexible and willing to take smart risks. They can become easily bored by everyday, repetitive experiences and enjoy the challenge involved with change. What new options will it present? What creative avenues will be opened up? As introverts, however, INTPs need time alone to process the change before giving an immediate response. They want to ruminate about the change and all the implications and effects before they jump on board.

  • INTPs are very independent and self-sufficient individuals. So give them time to reflect on this decision and have a voice in changes made.
  • Promote written, well thought-out communication or a one-on-one discussion about the change.
  • Give them the overall rationale behind the change. What’s the big picture?
  • Allow them the general plan and let them tinker with it and imagine new possibilities or options related to it.
  • Give them the logical reasons behind the change and why it is taking place.
  • Demonstrate that the leadership in charge of the change is competent and capable.
  • Be fair and equitable in the change.
  • Give them the opportunity to gather as much information as possible.
  • Give them room to adjust goals or implement plans as the process continues.

MBTI Change Readiness

ENFJ Change Readiness

Ever planful and future-focused, ENFJs are initially excited about change. In fact, they are one of seven personality types most likely to be excited by change. They enjoy working over the details involved in a change and getting on board with planning and implementation. They are skilled at making sure everyone feels heard in the change process and are good at making sure personal needs are accounted for and developments run along at a smooth pace. That said, ENFJs can feel very stressed during change, especially if there are personal factors that negatively impact them or others. If the people around them are stressed or anxious about the change they can get so wrapped up in trying to fix things for other people that they burn out or feel emotionally overwhelmed.

  • Discuss the personal impacts of the change directly with them. Ask how you can help.
  • Explain ways that the change will benefit the people involved.
  • Show that you are cooperative in working with others. Explain that the ENFJ won’t have to handle other people’s feelings entirely on their own.
  • Communicate regularly about the change.
  • Paint a picture of the future once the change is implemented.
  • Ask their advice for any future implications that may arise related to the change.
  • Include them in planning and implementation.
  • Demonstrate appreciation and support.
  • Give them a clear plan of action, with specific goals and expectations.
  • Give them a time frame and a statement of priorities.

MBTI Change Readiness

ENTJ Change Readiness

Decisive and analytical, ENTJs enjoy the challenge and possibility that change provides. They are usually quick to question the logic of the change to make sure it is sound. They need time to envision where the change will lead in the future, and they will appreciate being able to discuss this with others. These types are usually valued during change because of their ability to manage transitions effectively and efficiently without getting emotional or distracted. They are skilled at implementing structure, staying on task, and meeting deadlines. They are also a good sounding board for discussing implications of where the change will lead and whether or not it is a smart move.

  • Explain your reasons for the change. They dislike meaningless change but are excited about pragmatic, progressive change.
  • Discuss the change in person and ask for their thoughts and ideas.
  • Give them a voice in the change.
  • Give them opportunities to design the change you want to see happen.
  • Focus on the big picture.
  • Explain the systematic differences that will be put into place because of the change.
  • Demonstrate competent and confident leadership.
  • Give them a clear, concise plan of action.
  • Give a clear time frame and a statement of priorities.
  • Show that you are taking action to get the change in place.

INFJ Change Readiness

INFJs can have mixed reactions to change. While they enjoy being able to toy with a new vision or idea for the future, they can feel hesitant if they see implications that could be negative. They need more time to acclimate to change than many other types. They want to think through their position, analyze the potential effects, and consider how the change will impact them personally and the people around them. INFJs feel most motivated to change when they see a vision or image of the future that looks appealing and novel. They don’t like predictability or monotony and are excited by new options and possibilities – they just need time to mentally engage with the change and toy with the connections and impacts that it will have on everyone.

  • Present change to them one-on-one if possible.
  • Give them time to process the change and think it over before expecting an immediate response.
  • Explain the big picture – what will the future look like when this change is in place?
  • Give them opportunities to design the future and influence changes creatively.
  • Recognize the impacts this change might have on them or others.
  • Explain the values and ethics underlying the change. Is this the conscientious choice?
  • Show appreciation and support.
  • Give them a clear idea of priorities, outcomes, and goals.
  • Give a specific time frame for them to look forward to and plan for.

MBTI Change Readiness

INTJ Change Readiness

Long-term planning is a gift of the INTJ personality type. They can be excited by change, but they need time to figure out their strategy and predict implications and likely effects. Unexpected, surprise changes can irritate INTJs because they want time to create a plan and avoid mistakes that come from impulsivity and haste. INTJs enjoy toying with a new idea or possibility, so change can be exciting for them. They also enjoy the challenge that change provides – it gives them something new to figure out, a new future goal or vision to bring to actuality. They just need to be sure that the people handling the change are competent and will respect their insights into the situation.

  • Give them time alone to reflect on the change and analyze it before expecting a response.
  • Show that you have thought things through and given careful consideration to the implications of the change.
  • Explain the overall rationale and reason for the change.
  • Give them opportunities to influence and plan.
  • Explain the systematic changes that will go into effect.
  • Explain the goals – Where will this change lead to in the future?
  • Be fair to everyone involved in the change.
  • Give a clear, concise plan of action.
  • Be clear on your time frame. Don’t be wishy-washy or vague.
  • Don’t surprise them with the change.
  • Ask for their opinions and ideas.

ESFP Change Readiness

ESFPs have a knack for adapting to change and seeing the opportunities involved in it. These types enjoy variety and novelty and tend to get bored if life feels too repetitive or predictable. That said, they don’t like having changed forced on them, and they will want to have the freedom to make up their own mind about it and figure out whether it aligns with their values. They’ll want to know what options this change will provide, what exciting opportunities will open up, and how it will impact their relationships.

  • Talk to them about what’s going on and get them involved.
  • Keep lines of communication open and let them have a voice.
  • Give them real facts and data to explain why the change is taking place.
  • Be very specific and give a realistic picture of what to expect.
  • Be very clear about the expectations, roles, and potential responsibilities.
  • Recognize the impact this change will have on them and the people around them.
  • Explain the ethics and values behind the change. Is this the morally right thing to do?
  • Demonstrate that you care.
  • Give them some flexibility and room to explore options.
  • Don’t be rigid or panicky as this will set them on edge.

MBTI Change Readiness

ESTP Change Readiness

Change and variety are thrilling to ESTP individuals. These types get a rush of excitement from a new adventure or challenge. In fact, according to the MBTI® Manual, these are one of seven types most likely to enjoy change. ESTPs tend to get bored if their environments become predictable or mundane. Rather than repetition and consistency, they enjoy novel experiences and a mixture of tactical and strategic risk-taking. However, they don’t like having their decisions made for them. They’re more likely to create change or instigate it rather than just follow along on someone else’s plan. If they’re going to pursue a life-altering change then they’ll want strong, logical reasons to do so.

  • Give them time to talk about the changes and keep lines of communication open.
  • Let them have a voice in the process.
  • Give them real data and facts as to why the change is going to happen.
  • Be specific and detailed when explaining your reasons.
  • Give a realistic picture of what the future will look like.
  • Be logical – explain why this change is happening and discuss the systematic changes.
  • Be fair to everyone involved.
  • Demonstrate confidence and competence.
  • Let them gather more information as needed.
  • Don’t be rigid or micro-manage during the process.

ISFP Change Readiness

ISFPs can feel hesitant when new changes come their way. While they are typically adventurous and flexible, they are also deeply attached to their loved ones and the lives they create for themselves. They need time to reflect on change, to analyze the implications and discern how it will affect their personal relationships. They want to feel that there is a meaningful reason to pursue a change, and they need to feel supported and given reasonable facts and specifics about why the change needs to happen in the first place.

  • Discuss the change one-on-one and then give them time to process it alone afterward.
  • Don’t expect them to have an immediate answer.
  • Give them specifics and facts to explain your reasoning for the change.
  • Give them a realistic picture of what the future will look like with these changes in place.
  • Recognize the personal impacts of the change.
  • Be supportive and appreciative.
  • Explain the values that instigated the change. Are there any ethical reasons for it?
  • Don’t be controlling or overly rigid.

ISTP Change Readiness

Well thought-out change and new opportunities tend to be very appealing to ISTPs. They don’t mind switching things up or pursuing a new challenge, but they dislike change that seems emotionally-directed or overly optimistic. ISTPs want to know what the systematic changes will be, what the logic is, what new options will open up, and whether or not the direction seems feasible. They also want plenty of time to reflect on a change and assimilate information before jumping on board.

MBTI Change Readiness

  • Give them time to think through their position before discussing it or expecting an answer.
  • Be realistic and show the facts and data that led to this decision.
  • Explain the logic for the change.
  • Show competence and clarity in your decision-making process.
  • Give them room to adjust goals and plans as the process unfolds.
  • Explain the general parameters.
  • Be flexible and let them present new options.

ESFJ Change Readiness

Change can be unnerving for ESFJ individuals. These types enjoy mapping out their future and having all the details worked out so that life is on track to reach their goals. They enjoy consistency, traditions, and fellowship with well-known friends and family members. While they can enjoy the occasional adventure, they still appreciate stability and consistency. Change that is handled with concern, support, and organization can be exciting to them if it leads to a promising future. They just need to feel that their relationships aren’t at stake and that the people in charge will be supportive and competent.

  • Keep lines of communication open. Be honest and forthcoming.
  • Explain the facts and details that led to this decision.
  • Paint a realistic picture of where the change will lead.
  • Respect their feelings and be supportive and appreciative.
  • Show that you have a clear plan and a set deadline.
  • Make expectations, roles, and goals clear.
  • Explain the values that led to the change. Is this an ethical or moral decision?

ESTJs and Change

While change isn’t especially exciting for ESTJs, they tend to accept it if the goal is pragmatic and logical. They want

  1. To have a certain amount of control when change occurs and will be irritated if they are expected to just sit around and “let things happen”.
  2. Enjoy organizing, planning, and creating effective systems so that the objectives are met on an agreed-upon timeline.
  3. Although, they will hate change if the people handling it are wishy-washy, vague, or unrealistic in their objectives.
  • Explain the logical reasons for the change.
  • Be open and forthcoming with communication. Don’t beat around the bush.
  • Explain with clarity and real facts why the change has to take place.
  • Discuss the objectives, goals, and vision of where the change will lead.
  • Be specific about what’s needed and what the expectations are.
  • Have a clear timeline set forth and an organized plan of action.
  • Be fair and considerate to everyone involved.

MBTI Change Readiness

ISFJ Change Readiness

ISFJs are one of the types least likely to be excited by change. Individuals of this type thrive on stability, consistency, and a sense of routine. They like knowing what to expect and they enjoy working in fields where they have developed expertise and deep knowledge. Having to change, especially if there doesn’t seem to be a strong reason to, can be very stressful for them. That said, ISFJs can appreciate change if it will improve their relationship, their security, or will promote a cause they believe in. They can also enjoy change if they’re given time to prepare themselves for it and acclimate to the idea. Change that is thrust upon them without warning is the most unsettling to them.

  • Let them know about the change well ahead of time.
  • Be realistic and provide facts that back up your decision.
  • Paint a picture of where the change will lead – but be pragmatic, not fanciful.
  • Give them time to reflect on the change privately before expecting a response.
  • Be very specific about the purpose of the change. Don’t be vague or wishy-washy.
  • Be supportive and explain how people will be taken care of.
  • Give a clear timeline and outline of expectations and goals.

ISTJ Change Readiness

ISTJs need time to prepare for changes, and can be hesitant of a change initially. They enjoy stability and a sense of the familiar so having to suddenly react to a change can be stressful for them. If there is a strong, logical reason for a change to take place then they will usually get on board and be very helpful and thorough in preparations. But if the change seems poorly-planned, illogical, or impulsive they will be very skeptical and wary of embarking on such a venture. Planning and taking care of details is essential to these types, and if this part of the change-process seems hasty they will be apprehensive about whoever is leading the change.

  • Let them know about the change as early as possible so that they can prepare.
  • Involve them in the process and ask their advice.
  • Give strong, logical reasons for the change to take place.
  • Be very clear about the order of the change (deadlines, expectations, goals).
  • Use facts to back up your reasons for the change.
  • Give them time to process the change privately before expecting a lot of discussion.

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Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests book

Passing numerical reasoning tests

Brilliant Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests

Our Brilliant Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests book is available for download from the Apple Store.

Everything you need to know to practice and pass numerical reasoning tests

Rob Williams

Are you chasing a job that you really want, but need to take a verbal reasoning test to get it?

With the help of this book, you’ll sharpen your skills and quickly become confident in your ability to pass.

Brilliant Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests book – also available for download from the Apple Store.

passing numerical reasoning tests

Quantitative Reasoning Assessment Practice

Although you may not finish the test, the best strategy is to answer as many questions as you can in the time available.

  • Firstly, before deciding on your final answer. You may be able to rule out one or two of the multiple-choice questions as incorrect.
  • Secondly, read each question and also review each chart very carefully. Take one chart and its associated questions at a time. Only start looking at the answer options once you have done this.
  • Ensure that you are also aware of the units of measurement that each question is referring to.
  • Each question is worth the same so don’t spend too long on a single question. So, remember that you may find subsequent questions easier to answer. If there is time at the end of the test you can return to any unfinished questions.
  • Work efficiently, but do not rush. You may not finish the test. However, the best strategy is to answer as many questions as you can in the time available.
  • Remember to only use the information that is provided in the charts. Do not use any of your own background knowledge.
  • Lastly, round up any decimal points and any pence.

Our Assessment Centre Design

Passing numerical/verbal reasoning assessments

Free online assessments practice

 Free online numerical reasoning test practice / free online verbal reasoning test practice

Passing numerical reasoning assessments

There aren’t any quick wins for being good at maths but some focussed practise will improve your score, as well following a few test-taking strategies.

As a timed assessment, you need to average around one minute per question. Work briskly but accurately. Each question counts the same so pick off the easy ones first and don’t waste your test time on the most difficult questions.

Numerical reasoning test practice is an excellent means of brushing-up on any maths functions you haven’t used in a while. Ensure that you are comfortable using data tables, interpreting graphs and manipulating large financial figures.

You can practise the most common numerical test types at the main test publisher websites. Practise sample questions from Kenexa-IBM, TalentQ and SHL as these sites cover most of the tests you are likely to find.

passing numerical reasoning tests

What do psychometric assessments measure?

Ability tests can assess a specific ability (Verbal, Numerical, Spatial) or more general level of reasoning (Abstract, Non-Verbal).

Personality assessments broadly divided into those which assess personality traits (16PF) and those, which assess personality types (Myers Briggs). This difference relates back to the personality theory on which the test is based.

Free Aptitude Test Practice

Related posts – passing numerical reasoning tests

Passing numerical reasoning tests

Numerical reasoning and verbal tests

Free online test practice

 Free online numerical reasoning test practicefree online verbal reasoning test practice

Passing numerical reasoning tests

There aren’t any quick wins for being good at maths but some focussed practice will improve your score, as will following a few test-taking strategies.

As a timed assessment, you need to average around one minute per question. Work briskly but accurately. Each question counts the same so pick off the easy ones first and don’t waste your test time on the most difficult questions.

Numerical reasoning test practice is an excellent means of brushing-up on any maths functions you haven’t used in a while. Ensure that you are comfortable using data tables, interpreting graphs and manipulating large financial figures.

You can practise the most common numerical test types at the main test publisher websites. Practise sample questions from Kenexa-IBM, TalentQ and SHL as these sites cover most of the tests you are likely to find.

Passing verbal reasoning tests 

Verbal reasoning assessments come in many different types of format.

The traditional comprehension format is to have a short passage followed by a series of questions – asking about facts, opinions, and conclusions – based on its content, a bit like those English tests in primary school where you answered questions on a novel extract.

Regardless of the type of test, it’s vital to carefully read each question. Often questions hinge on one or two key words, so you must take more care to interpret these accurately. If questioned whether something “always” applies whilst the passage states that it is “sometimes” the case, then this is a false interpretation.

Scan the passage initially and then read it in more detail. It’s easier to answer each question if you can recall roughly where to find the answer in the text.

Passing abstract reasoning tests

These ask you to look for the changing pattern(s) in the “pictures”.

The easier questions typically appear at the start of the assessment and will involve one change in colour, position, size etc .of the figures shown.

Questions become more difficult as you progress and must spot two or three changes in any of the features shown. Once you’ve worked out at least one of the feature changes, check through the answer options to discount those that do not conform.

Passing personality tests

When it comes to answering psychometric surveys that evaluate personality, the best advice is to give your “first response”.

Visualise how you would behave at work on a typical good day. Don’t second guess what is being looked for since “faking” and lying are easily picked up.

Practice, practice, practice psychometric tests

Like anything, practice makes perfect. And don’t be afraid to ask the employer which publisher’s tests they use – most will be happy to tell you.

Being familiar with the format, as well as the kinds of questions asked, will give you a clear advantage. On the day, keep calm and remember that most assessments are timed, so answer the questions as swiftly as you can.

Being familiar with the format, as well as the kinds of questions asked, will give you a clear advantage. On the day, keep calm and remember that most assessments are timed, so answer the questions as swiftly as you can.

Popular Personality Surveys

You might also enjoy the following:

Firstly, How stressed is your child?

Secondly, How effective is your decision-making style?

Thirdly, How are your Basic Tutoring Skills?

Also, IntelligenceTypes.

And, How Effective Are Your Time Management Skills?

Plus, Do your Tutoring Skills Need a Tune-Up?

Finally, How well-developed are your English writing skills.

Psychometric development

Strengths Design

Assessment design projects involving virtual strengths design are one of our many psychometric test design specialities.

Virtual Strengths Design

Situational judgement tests (SJTs) have also become prevalent in graduate recruitment. These tests present scenarios to applicants and asks them to select the best and the worst thing to do next. The scenarios are set within the context of the recruiting organisation, so the questions are usually perceived favourably by candidates. SJTs are very popular in the United States due to their excellent record of fairness across different ethnic groups.

We have experience of designing situational strengths tests that are generic in nature. In addition to these SJT-based situational strengths tests, we offer these two alternative psychometric test designs.

Education and public sector aptitude test design projects

  • Numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, abstract reasoning and decision analysis tests.
  • Critical reasoning aptitude test (legal sector).
  • Situational judgement test (health sector).

Virtual Strengths Design

Citibank Aptitude Test Design Example

  • Designing blended assessments for retail and call centre operations across the USA.
  • Allowing for cultural differences in Mexican operations.
  • Managing item writing team for SJTs, ability tests, biodata questions etc.

EPSO Aptitude Test Design Project

  • Development of project management test.
  • Design of IT skills-based aptitude tests.

Assessments Design

This psychometric test design is similar in nature to personality questionnaire design, explained here. Our bespoke strengths test design process…

  1. Has dimensions key to the role being assessed.
  2. Reflect the personality, attitudinal and motivational aspects of the role-specific dimensions.
  3. Have face valid questions.
  4. Be capable of completion in 20 minutes approx.
  5. Adopt a single-stimulus question format (Likert scale).
  6. Adopt a normative format of scoring utilising a sten look-up table (for each personality scale).

Virtual Strengths Design

Situational Strengths Test

An excellent example is CAPP’s Situational Strengths Test. This builds on the many advantages that SJTs have, being:

–Easy to administer to a large audience.

–Relatively strong validity.

–Can assess a sample of the relevant KSA’s.

–Refreshed items possible.

–More difficult to fake responses.

Bespoke VBR Example

  • 3-4 scenarios will assess each value, giving approx. 15-16 questions.
  • Provides accurate and meaningful feedback to each respondent.
  • This practical job preview has the advantage of using the same SJT format.

Situational interview(s) comprising:

  • Values.
  • Competency; and
  • Technical questions.

Situational Simulation Exercises

  • Scenarios from job analysis used to design simulation exercises.
  • Parallel version developed to maximise exercise integrity.
  • And to minimise the risk of applicants sharing details of tools.
  • Without compromising the validity of the assessment process

Situational Values-Based Interview

  • We propose a structured interview comprising values, competency and technical pharmacy questions
  • Collaborate with job incumbents to design technical questions/scoring guide.

A situational judgement test, or SJT, presents realistic scenarios similar to those that would be encountered when doing a particular job. Typically, candidates must identify the Best and the Worst course of action from four multiple-choice options. In other words, you must make two “judgements” about what to do and what not to do next in the “situation” presented. An alternative SJT format asks the test-taker to rank multiple-choice options in terms of effectiveness.

Situational strengths in the news

On BBC Radio 2, in February 2014, Dr Almuth McDowell referred to the benefits of situational judgement tests and one of the SJT example items developed by Rob Williams Assessment Ltd.

The same interview on SJT benefits also featured in The Times on 4th Feb, Dr Almuth McDowell, a lecturer at the University of Surrey, says psychometric testing has an important role to play, but only in conjunction with other measures, not least because it is possible to cheat. 

Additional situational judgment test tips are available in Rob Williams Assessment Ltd’s latest Career Builder article entitled “How to succeed at management interview tests”.

Strengths Assessment Development

Psychometric test examples are useful to see the type of strengths development testing approaches.

In fact, there are many many types of psychometric test examples. Let’s consider the many different strengths that a person may possess. For example, their intelligence strengths and weaknesses from the many different types of intelligence.

The Intelligence Test demonstrates the range of possible intelligence strengths. There are many types of intelligence. For example, creative intelligence and musical aptitude which we have not included in our model.

Strengths Assessment Design

An effective competency design framework is crucial to the operation of many HR practices.

Shown below is an example of a typical competency design framework used in an assessment centre. In this case, the group exercise’s competency component of the overall assessment centre competency matrix:

– Oral Communication

How clearly and confidently the individual communicates with the group.

– Planning and Organising

How much consideration is given to planning and systematically going through the issues outlined in the scenario.

– Judgement and Decision-Making

How logically the individual makes their decisions and judges other participants’ input/comments.

– Analysis and Problem-Solving

How effectively the individual analyses the scenario’s issues and the solutions proposed.

– Finding Solutions

The creative thinking that is shown. The number and effectiveness of the ideas generated.

– Teamworking

How well the individual works with and encourages the other group exercise participants.

Strengths framework design

Having a competency framework helps an organisation to:

– Know which knowledge, skills and abilities are important for success in each role

– Measure and benchmark organisational performance

– Select, develop and performance manage employees (against the competencies associated with each role).

– Is it more cost effective to adapt an already validated model?

– How best to get buy-in across the business? Firstly, for involvement in the development stage. Secondly, to get commitment to future use of the validated framework.

– What role analysis techniques are most suitable for analysing each of the job roles?

– How to benchmark employee performance against the trial competency framework?

– How to validate the effectiveness of the draft competency framework?

Strengths-based Telephone interview design

Previous projects that have encompassed telephone interview sift designs. These include:

  • Competency-based sift design for telephone and cv-based sifts (finance sector).
  • Telephone interview script design (consultancy firm).
  • Conducting telephone interviews for the armed services.
  • Telephone interview design (manufacturing sector).

Strengths Development – Role Analysis

There follows a Role Analysis Case Study: a US bank had two specific requirements: ensuring a representative sample by samplying sufficiently high number of people per role. Interviewees were mainly high performers; sampled across both urban and rural branches; with their offices scattered right across the U.S.

1) Strengths Telephone-based interviews

Firstly, these formed a large part of the job analysis research. The advantages of using a telephone-based approach was that a standard template could be created with a script to adhere to whilst also allowing some follow-up question flexibility.

2) Assessment Designs – Visionary interviews

Secondly, these were run on a more select basis with a range of senior managers (within each job role). A scripted template ensured that all psychologists asked the standard set of questions. Face-to-face visionary interviews were also arranged with the most senior personnel at some of the focus group sites.

3) Strengths Focus groups

Thirdly, these were conducted in several American States, situated in Central, Eastern and Western time zones. A semi-structured focus group format represented the most suitable job analysis technique to use. Six participants, drawn from each job role, were invited to attend each role-specific focus group session.

4) Strengths Role survey

In addition, a role survey was created based on the bank’s competency framework, with two questions per competency. Survey results were also used to inform the item writing process.

The final 5-10 minute survey had two banks of questions with the stems:

  • How important do you do each of the following on a daily basis? and how important are the following to your job?

10 personality tips to help your Study Skills

  1. Find your best time to study. 
  2. Keep to a routine. Work in the same place at the same time each day. Also, make sure you have everything you need before you start.
  3. Work to your strengths. Schedule challenging tasks for when you are most alert. Routine ones for when you’re tired.
  4. Don’t waste time. Skim and scan before reading something in-depth.
  5. Avoid distractions. Switch emails and social media off to prevent your mind wandering !
  6. Regularly review your notes. Edit out what you don’t need. Ask yourself, how does it relate to what I already know.
  7. Vary how you to take notes – For example, use Mind Maps and diagrams to generate ideas.
  8. Be critical. Maintain a critical and analytical approach at all times!
  9. Plan your work. So, produce a detailed plan first.
  10. Understand different styles.

Example job analysis briefings

Candidate Experience Briefing – A separate briefing detailed the client style and language (US English) needs.

The main aims from a “Candidate Experience” perspectives included:

  • Reflecting the company brand
  • Engaging job applicants
  • Providing some elements of a realistic job preview
  • Overall look and feel to be consistent

Assessment Designs – Focus Group Briefing

The focus group aims were to confirm the role profile interview data.

Firstly, focuses on how best to structure the upcoming focus group sessions. Secondly, a consideration of the outputs required. Thirdly, how individual consultants could best run their focus group sessions.

Situational Strengths Test

There is a specialised form of situational judgement test called the Situational Strengths Test. One company that uses this test is Lloyds pharmacy, where the CAPP Situational Strengths Test is used to recruit pharmacists.

Situational strengths tests have these advantages (in any context):

– Easy to administer to large audience

– Relatively strong validity

– Can assess sample of the relevant KSA’s

– Refreshed items possible

– More difficult to fake responses

Virtual strengths design

Bespoke VBR Example

  • 3-4 scenarios will assess each value, giving approx. 15-16 questions
  • Provides accurate and meaningful feedback to each respondent
  • This practical job preview has the advantage of using the same SJT format

Assessment Designs – Situational Exercises

  • Scenarios from job analysis used to design simulation exercises
  • Parallel version developed to maximise exercise integrity and minimise risk of applicants sharing details of tools and compromising the validity of the assessment process

The following situational strengths scenarios are examples only. Actual client projects always start with the most suitable level of role analysis. Then again validate the content against client requirement by choosing the most predictive scenarios and answer options.

Every scenario used also gives candidates a realistic insight into the role. Thus your applicants’s understanding of their own fit with the role. This operates in addition to the assessment component (of the same situational strengths test).

Each scenario used also gives candidates a realistic insight into the role. Thus your applicants’s understanding of their own fit with the role. This operates in addition to the assessment component (of the same situational strengths test).

Every scenario used also gives candidates a realistic insight into the role. Thus your applicants’s understanding of their own fit with the role. This operates in addition to the assessment component (of the same situational strengths test).

Aptitude test design projects

Ability tests for graduates, including problem-solving aptitude tests and abstract reasoning tests.

UKCAT test practice questions for several clients. Each project encompas

  • Verbal reasoning practice tests;
  • Numerical reasoning practice tests,
  • Abstract reasoning practice tests and
  • Decision-making practice aptitude tests.

Firstly, verbal analogies test.
Secondly, ability tests at basic, graduate and at senior managerial levels.
Thirdly, numeracy tests.
Fourthly, practice critical reasoning ability tests (for the LNAT);

Virtual strengths design

Job Preview Design

Many application processes now start online with a realistic job preview design that potential applicants take on the company website to “test” if the role still appears suitable after finding out about the realities of the role. Hence it’s a job preview but a realistic one.

Realistic role preview design

Typically, the test format is similar to an SJT in that job scenarios are presented which give the test-taker / job applicant an idea of what the job entails. Whilst the realistic job preview (RJP) is not a testing phase often there will be a more sophisticated SJT in a subsequent phase. In more sophisticated examples still graphics or video technology is used to further enhance the Realistic job preview / SJT experience for candidates.

Virtual strengths design

This are an area that Rob Williams Assessment Ltd also specialise in. This builds on our situational judgement test design and we are often asked to design both a realistic job preview and a situational judgement test at the same time.

Our approach to the design of realistic job previews has the following phases.

Step-by-step role preview design 

(1) Planning a representative sample

(2) Conducting a highly detailed  set of telephone interviews and focus groups.

(3) Item writing

(4) SJT and RJP item reviewing

(5) compile a trial version to be reviewed by 10-12 subject matter experts (SME’s) in the role

(6) Trialling the situational judgement test

(7) Statistical analysis

(8) Presentation of trial results at standard-setting meeting with core SME’s

(9) Validation and norming the situational judgement test

Aptitude test practice books

Rob Williams’s five practice aptitude tests books are all available on Amazon:

Firstly, in our opinion this is the best aptitude test practice book for Passing Verbal Reasoning Tests.

Secondly, in our opinion this is the best aptitude test practice book forPassing Numerical Reasoning Tests.

Assessment Design

Situational Strengths Test

One company that uses this test is Lloyds pharmacy, where the CAPP Situational Strengths Test is used to recruit pharmacists.

Situational strengths tests have these advantages (in any context):

– Easy to administer to large audience.

– Relatively strong validity.

– Can assess sample of the relevant KSA’s.

– Refreshed items possible.

– More difficult to fake responses.

Situational Exercises

  • Scenarios from job analysis used to design simulation exercises.
  • Parallel version developed to maximise exercise integrity.
  • To minimise risk of applicants sharing details of tools.

The following situational strengths scenarios are examples only. Actual client projects always start with the most suitable level of role analysis. Then again validate the content against client requirement by choosing the most predictive scenarios and answer options.

Every scenario used also gives candidates a realistic insight into the role. Thus your applicants’s understanding of their own fit with the role. This operates in addition to the assessment component (of the same situational strengths test).

Every scenario used also gives candidates a realistic insight into the role. Thus your applicants’s understanding of their own fit with the role. This operates in addition to the assessment component (of the same situational strengths test).

strengths design

Situational Strengths Research

Employers are increasingly using bespoke situational judgement tests (where the candidate is presented with scenarios and asked to select the best and the worst thing to do next) as a way to learn more about their character and attitudes to work.

The increase in the number of graduate courses and the career benefits of having a degree have driven a huge increase in the number of graduates. There remains a limited number of vacancies each year on graduate trainee schemes.

During the recent years of recession, the number of graduate entry roles became even more restricted; making graduate recruitment even more competitive. Microsoft, for example, received 15,000 job applications for each of its 150 graduate position in 2009. That year, the success ratio of applications to job offers was 1:100 at Microsoft.

This has created a “bottleneck” between the high number of recent graduates and the considerably lower number who are successfully placed on graduate entry schemes. Clearly, there are severe implications of such a challenging job market for graduates.

For employers too, there is a “war on talent” to find and sign-up the best possible graduates in the marketplace. It is a recruiters’ market, however most recruiters want to recruit the top echelon of high-performing graduates who are showing the best leadership potential, the most effective ability to work in teams, the highest levels of motivation and drive etc. SJTs offer an effective means of measuring each of these abilities and attributes.

Situational Strengths Design


Situational judgment tests in the news

On BBC Radio 2, in February 2014, Dr Almuth McDowell referred to the benefits of situational judgement tests and one of the SJT example items developed by Rob Williams Assessment Ltd.

The same interview on SJT benefits also featured in The Times on 4th Feb, Dr Almuth McDowell, a lecturer at the University of Surrey, says psychometric testing has an important role to play, but only in conjunction with other measures, not least because it is possible to cheat. 

Additional situational judgment test tips are available in Rob Williams Assessment Ltd’s latest Career Builder article entitled “How to succeed at management interview tests”.

Example of situational judgement tests 

You mention in passing to a colleague that you believe there are some financial risks associated with a financial product that’s about to be launched to customers. In a team meeting later that week, your colleague shares this information with your manager – without mentioning your name. How do you react?

You are then asked to select your most preferred and least preferred responses

(a) Apologise on your colleague’s behalf for their poor explanation.

(b) Suggest that your colleague does their own research.

(c) Ask your colleague to also include you in future.

(d) Check that your manager understands the risk involved.

By using real life scenarios, the idea is that employers will get a better understanding of how you might operate in the work place.

Branching situational judgement tests 

As psychometric tests have become more commonplace, the bigger users have commissioned their own bespoke situational judgement tests. Rob Williams Assessment has worked on several such projects for High Street banks and for the European Union. Another recent innovation of test developers has been online adaptive tests. With these tests, if you are doing well, you will find that the questions get progressively harder. That can feel like a challenge since you are pushed until you reach the most challenging level you can. This is the level at which you – just like other candidates with your level of verbal reasoning – start to get questions wrong.

The innovative design of shorter and more efficient tests was driven by an increasingly aware of the immediacy of the Internet and our increasing use of emails and social media in short, sharp bursts.  This discourages test takers from spending 30-40 minutes online doing the same questionnaire. Its better for everyone to keep test takers engaged when being tested – not bored!

So what will adaptive tests mean for you as a prospective test taker?  The biggest difference is the shortness of the test. The second major difference is that you will find an adaptive test more challenging. Without getting into their highly technical make-up, the test adapts to your ability level. More specifically it adapts to find the most challenging question that you can answer correctly.

In the past you may have found questions on a test fluctuating in difficulty or generally becoming more and more difficult the further on you get in the test. Consider a test of twenty questions with the first the easiest and the twentieth the most difficult.

Knowledge-based situational judgement tests 

Some or all of the scenarios presented in an SJT can test specific job knowledge. For example, a retail marketing SJT may ask questions about the 3Ps (price, position, promotion) of product marketing. Alternatively both an SJT measuring generic decision-making skills may be used alongside a knowledge-based test.

Video based Situational judgment tests in 2018

Simulated situational judgement tests are increasingly common as recruitment sifts. Adding 2D or 3D workplace scenario graphics brings the situational judgment test scenarios to life. This can only promote the company brand and make employers using simulated situational judgment tests more desirable employers.

UK and US psychometric test publishers have produced both video-based and animated SJT scenarios. Animated SJTs are easier – and therefore cheaper – for global companies to develop.

situational strengths design

Situational judgement test research 2010 – 2018

Becker’s development and validation of a situational judgment test of employee integrity.

Secondly, Bergman’s scoring situational judgment tests: Once you get the data, your troubles begin.

Next, Bledlow’s situational judgment test of personal initiative and its relationship to performance.

Also, Campion’s state of research on situational judgment tests: A content analysis and directions for future research.

Then, Catano, V. M., Brochu, A. & Lamerson, C. D. (2012). Assessing the reliability of situational judgment tests used in high_stakes situations. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 20(3), 333–346.

Also, Chan’s situational judgment and job performance.

Next, Guenole’s Are situational judgment tests precise enough for feedback in leadership development?

Houston’s development of the enlisted computer adaptive personality scales.

Plus, Krumm’s how “situational” is judgment in situational judgment tests?

Also, McDaniel;s towards an understanding of situational judgment item validity and group differences.

Then, McDaniel’s situational judgment tests.

Mumford’s development and validation of a team role knowledge situational judgment test.

Next, Peus’ situation-based measurement of the full range of leadership model. Development and validation of a situational judgment test.

Also, Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: Evidence from intercultural multimedia situational judgement tests.

Finally, Sharma’s development and validation of a situational judgment test of emotional intelligence.

Situational judgement test research 2010 – 2019

Firstly, Becker’s development and validation of a situational judgment test of employee integrity.

Secondly, Bergman’s scoring situational judgment tests: Once you get the data, your troubles begin.

Next, Bledlow’s situational judgment test of personal initiative and its relationship to performance.

Also, Campion’s state of research on situational judgment tests: A content analysis and directions for future research.

Then, Catano, V. M., Brochu, A. & Lamerson, C. D. (2012). Assessing the reliability of situational judgment tests used in high_stakes situations. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 20(3), 333–346.

Also, Chan’s situational judgment and job performance.

Next, Guenole’s Are situational judgment tests precise enough for feedback in leadership development?

Situational judgement test research 2010 – 2019 Part II

Also, Houston’s development of the enlisted computer adaptive personality scales.

Plus, Krumm’s how “situational” is judgment in situational judgment tests?

Also, McDaniel;s towards an understanding of situational judgment item validity and group differences.

Situational Strengths Design

Then, McDaniel’s situational judgment tests.

And finally, Mumford’s development and validation of a team role knowledge situational judgment test.

SJT research 2008 – 2019 Part III

Next, Peus’ situation-based measurement of the full range of leadership model. Development and validation of a situational judgment test.

Also, Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: Evidence from intercultural multimedia situational judgement tests.

Finally, Sharma’s development and validation of a situational judgment test of emotional intelligence.

Secondly, Campion’s state of research on situational judgment tests: A content analysis and directions for future research.

Thirdly, Catano’s assessing the reliability of situational judgment tests used in high stakes situations.

Fourthly, Guenole’s are situational judgment tests precise enough for feedback in leadership development?

Fifthly, Krumm’s how “situational” is judgment in situational judgment tests?

Situational judgement test research 2008 – 2019 Part IV

Firstly, Lievens’ situational judgment tests: From measures of situational judgment to measures of general domain knowledge.

Secondly, McDaniel’s Toward an understanding of situational judgment item validity and group differences.

Thirdly, Mumford’s team role test. The development and validation of a team role knowledge situational judgment test.

Situational Strengths Design

Fourthly, Peus’ situation-based measurement of the full range of leadership model. The development and validation of a situational judgment test.

Then, next is Sharma’s development and validation of a situational judgment test of emotional intelligence.

And next is Rockstuhl’s putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: Evidence from intercultural multimedia situational judgment tests.

Plus, Weekley’s low-fidelity simulations.

Then finally, Westring’s estimating trait and situational variance in a situational judgment test.

SJT research 2008 – 2019 Part VI

Firstly, Allen, V., Rahman, N., Weissman, A., MacCann, C., Lewis, C., & Roberts, R. D. (2015). The Situational Test of Emotional Management–Brief (STEM-B): Development and validation using item response theory and latent class analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 81, 195- 200.

Secondly, Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition & emotion6(3-4), 169-200.

Thirdly, Bledow, R., & Frese, M. (2009). A situational judgment test of personal initiative and its

Situational Strengths design

relationship to performance. Personnel Psychology62(2), 229-258.

Fourthly, Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies.

And next Chan, D., & Schmitt, N. (2017). Situational judgment tests. The Blackwell handbook of personnel selection.

Then finally, Ambady, N. (2003). When familiarity breeds accuracy: Cultural exposure and

facial emotion recognition. Journal of personality and social psychology85(2), 276-290.

Situational judgement test research 2008 – 2019 Part V

Firstly, Elfenbein, H. A., Der Foo, M., White, J., Tan, H. H., & Aik, V. C. (2007). Reading your

counterpart: The benefit of emotion recognition accuracy for effectiveness in negotiation. J

Secondly, Farh, C. I., Seo, M. G., & Tesluk, P. E. (2012). Emotional intelligence, teamwork effectiveness, and job performance: The moderating role of job context. Journal of Applied Psychology.

Thirdly, Heggestad, E. D., & Morrison, M. J. (2008). An inductive exploration of the social effectiveness construct space. Journal of personality.

Fourthly, Hogan, R., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Kaiser, R. B. (2013). Employability and career success:

Situational Strengths Tests

Bridging the gap between theory and reality. Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

And then, Kaplan, S., Cortina, J., Ruark, G., LaPort, K., & Nicolaides, V. (2014). The role of organizational leaders in employee emotion management: A theoretical model. The Leadership Quarterly25(3), 563-580.

Motowidlo, S. J., Dunnette, M. D., & Carter, G. W. (1990). An alternative selection procedure: The low-fidelity simulation. Journal of Applied Psychology75(6), 640-647.

Ng, T. W., Eby, L. T., Sorensen, K. L., & Feldman, D. C. (2005). Predictors of objective and subjective career success: A meta‐ analysis. Personnel psychology58(2), 367-408.

Then finally, Schlegel, K., & Scherer, K. R. (2016). Introducing a short version of the Geneva Emotion Recognition Test (GERT-S): Psychometric properties and construct validation. Behavior research methods, 48(4), 1383-1392.

Strengths design

Situational strengths tests

Firstly, our situational judgement test designs.

Also finally, our Army situational judgement tests.

Our Psychometric Design Toolkit

Firstly, our strengths psychometric ~ Secondly, our psychometric test design ~ Then our personality test design ~ And finally our Realistic Job Preview Design.

Our psychometric test designs

Strengths Design  ~ Realistic Job Preview Design ~ Personality Test Design ~ Situational Judgment Test Design ~ Psychometric Test Design.

situational strengths design

Culture Fit / Values Fit Tests

We specialise in several types of culture fit and work values fit tests:

  • Values fit – useful measure for startup selection processes
  • Personality fit – similar to cultural fit
  • Team fit
  • Career fit

Work Values Fit Tests

We explore three types of work values tests:

 

  • Personality work values tests
  • Fit designs for matching corporate values to personal values
  • Situational Values Fit Designs

1) Personality work values fit tests

Rob Williams Assessment Ltd has experience of designing personality values tests that are generic in nature.

2) Matching corporate values to personal values

Alternatively, specific values test which assesses a company’s values. Hence, an individual’s fit between their personal values and their work’s organisational values. Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are often used to measure values. Also, the fit with a company’s values.

  •  3-4 scenarios to assess each value.
  • Totalling approx. 15-16 questions.
  • Provides accurate and meaningful feedback to each respondent.

3) Values based situational judgement tests 

Typically a situational judgement test uses problem-solving and judgment skills to measure role-specific competencies. In particular, those role characteristics which are difficult to assess at interview or in an assessment centre. For example, empathy and resilience in customer-facing customer service roles.

At a higher level than the role, bespoke SJTs can also be designed to assess organisational “fit”. How well an individual’s values and attitudes match those of the organisation. The rationale is that this is an assessment of whether or not the individual “fits” into the organisational culture.

Work Values – Interview

A structured interview(s) comprising firstly values questions. Secondly, comprising of competency questions, and finally, including technical questions.

Work Values – Simulation Exercises

  • Scenarios from the job analysis can be used to design simulation exercises.
  • Parallel version developed to maximise exercise integrity.
  • Minimise the risk of applicants sharing details of tools.
  • Compromising the validity of the assessment process.

Work Values Fit Tests

3) Situational judgement tests – values

Typically a situational judgement test uses problem-solving and judgment skills to measure role-specific competencies. In particular, those role characteristics which are difficult to assess at interview or in an assessment centre. For example, empathy and resilience in customer-facing customer service roles.

At a higher level than the role, bespoke SJTs can also be designed to assess organisational “fit”. How well an individual’s values and attitudes match those of the organisation. The rationale is that this is an assessment of whether or not the individual “fits” into the organisational culture.

Values-Based Interview

A structured interview(s) comprising firstly values questions. Secondly, comprising of competency questions, and finally, including technical questions.

Values-Based Simulation Exercises

  • Scenarios from the job analysis can be used to design simulation exercises.
  • Parallel version developed to maximise exercise integrity.
  • Minimise risk of applicants sharing details of tools.
  • Compromising the validity of the assessment process.

Work Values Fit Tests

Culture Fit

In 2018, the ongoing organisational trend of cultural fit becoming increasingly important. What does this mean for you if you are applying to an organisation with a distinct culture? Company culture will be a key topic of conversation amongst the top Executives of many of the graduate employers.

Start-ups value agile working and modern approaches, such as flexible and managing projects via a  sprints-based methodology. We all know about the culture of design obsession at Apple and the research-time perks of working at Google. Many of the high-profile US tech leaders, such as Netflix, measure their values and their culture.

Why, is company culture so important to these companies? Large employers in the technology industry often struggle with recruiting top talent with the highly specialised IT skills they need. In London and the West Coast. Any applicant can ‘sample’ how others have experienced their contact by checking Glassdoor ratings.. which certainly explains why many company CEOs now obsess over keeping this high. And yes Google’s at 4.4 is exceptionally high!

The allure and difficulty of getting through the Google application process both add to the company’s allure for IT graduates. all of this public perception is part of the company culture since new joiners bring that set of beliefs with them when they join.

Then once these specialists have joined, the company must keep their specific skill sets up-to-date. It must having a positive working environment to keep these highly valued staff engaged.

 –  –  –   Work Culture Fit   –  –  –

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Psychometric Test Design. People having colour fight.

Us

Rob Williams Assessment Ltd specialises in custom psychometric test design services for SME’s and scale-ups. Plus we’ve helped SHL and Kenexa IBM with larger EU, BA and CItibank psychometric design projects; designed video assessments (HireVue); and been commissioned by leading psychometric consultancies, such as SOVA and CAPP.

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Psychometric Designs

Many of the UK’s and US’s leading test publishers have used Rob Williams Assessment’s to calculate and prove the reliability of their Personality Tests and Situational Judgement Tests.In addition to situational judgement test design, we also specialise in other forms of psychometric test design, such as personality test design and verbal reasoning test design.

Our specific psychometric test design specialities

Strengths Assessment ~ Disability Assessment ~ Leadership Assessment ~ Situational Strengths ~  Intelligence Strengths Test ~ Skills test design / Psychometric ~ Assessment standards ~ Competency Design ~ Realistic Job Preview Design.

Our Bespoke Psychometric Design Principles

For training consultancies, Rob Williams Assessment Ltd has built coaching and employability profiling tools.With recruitment agencies we’ve designed culture and role fit personality-based assessments to improve the efficiency of matching clients to the best-fitting jobs.

Our Personality Fit Designs

An increasing number of recruitment agencies use Rob Williams Assessment Ltd’s bespoke algorithms for culture fit to improve their shortlisting process for key clients. More accurate shortlisting created efficiencies for both the agency and for their clients. Shortlisted candidates are also happier; knowing that the agency is only putting their details forward to the jobs and companies that are the best fit for them, personally.This reflects a growing recognition of the need to match individual applicants to organisational culture. Typically graduates favoured corporate cultures but now often find the culture of SME’s/start-ups to be more engaging and ‘meaningful’.

Best practice situational judgment test design

Rob Williams Assessment Ltd successfully applied the British Psychological Society’s best practice in personality questionnaire design.Both bespoke personality questionnaire met the client’s aim of measuring the most commonly sought graduate personality traits.Employers are increasingly using bespoke situational judgement tests (where the candidate is presented with scenarios and asked to select the best and the worst thing to do next) as a way to learn more about their character and attitudes to work.

Psychometric Test Design. Man at desk working at laptop, picture taken from the top

Our branching situational judgement test designs

As psychometric tests have become more commonplace, the bigger users have commissioned their own bespoke situational judgement tests.Rob Williams Assessment has worked on several such projects for High Street banks and for the European Union. Another recent innovation of test developers has been online adaptive tests. With these tests, if you are doing well, you will find that the questions get progressively harder.The innovative design of shorter and more efficient tests was driven by an increasingly aware of the immediacy of the Internet and our increasing use of emails and social media, in short, sharp bursts.This discourages test takers from spending 30-40 minutes online doing the same questionnaire. It’s better for everyone to keep test takers engaged when being tested – not bored!

Adaptive psychometric test design

So what will adaptive tests mean for you as a prospective test taker?  The biggest difference is the shortness of the test. The second major difference is that you will find an adaptive test more challenging. Without getting into their highly technical make-up, the test adapts to your ability level. More specifically it adapts to find the most challenging question that you can answer correctly.In the past, you may have found questions on a test fluctuating in difficulty or generally becoming more and more difficult the further on you get in the test. Consider a test of twenty questions with the first the easiest and the twentieth the most difficult.

Knowledge-based situational judgement test design

Some or all of the scenarios presented in an SJT can test specific job knowledge. For example, a retail marketing SJT may ask questions about the 3Ps (price, position, promotion) of product marketing. Alternatively, both an SJT measuring generic decision-making skills may be used alongside a knowledge-based test.

Our video-based situational judgment test designs

Simulated situational judgement tests are increasingly common as recruitment sifts. Adding 2D or 3D workplace scenario graphics brings the situational judgment test scenarios to life. This can only promote the company brand and make employers using simulated situational judgment tests more desirable employers.

psychometric test design

UK and US psychometric test publishers have produced both video-based and animated SJT scenarios. Animated SJTs are easier – and therefore cheaper – for global companies to develop.

Our consultancy work focuses on aptitude test practice and bespoke psychometric test design. We believe in the benefits of practice and ensuring fairness in testing. We, therefore, offer some practice aptitude tests and some practice psychometric tests. The intention is to promote as ‘level a playing-field’ as possible.

We always follow BPS Standards in Psychometric Test Design

To be psychometrically sound a test must be:
  • Objective – the results obtained are not influenced by the administrator’s personal characteristics or irrelevant factors such as the colour of a test taker’s socks.
  • Standardised – the test is administered and scored according to standard procedures and people’s scores are compared to known standards.
  • Reliable – the test measures in a consistent way. The potential error is small and is quantifiable.
  • Valid – the test measures the characteristics which it set out to measure. A test used to select a job applicant should predict job performance. A test of verbal ability should predict this area and not some other skill.
  • Discriminating – the test should show clear differences between individuals on the behaviour being tested. It should not be discriminatory I.e. unfairly discriminating against minority groups on the basis of irrelevant characteristics.

Our Bespoke Psychometric Tests have validity

While reliability deals with consistency and accuracy of the measurement device, validity deals with the theoretical concept that the test supposed to measure. In general terms validity refers to the extent in which a test measures what it is meant to be measuring. For example, if a test supposed to measure extroversion, it is expected to ask questions about social behaviour, and to correlate with other tests that measure similar concepts such as outgoingness. There are five types of validity, these are:
  • Firstly, Predictive validity.
  • Secondly, Discriminate validity.
  • Thirdly, Content validity.
  • And then next, Face validity.
  • Plus finally, Construct validity.

Predictive Validity

Predictive validity is an indication of how well the test score predicts future behaviour. For example, test used for employment selection are expected to correlate with job performance.

Content Validity

The extent in which the test samples relevant aspects of the psychological function. For example, the psychological function of extroversion is made of being socially bold, eccentric, sociable, and lively.A test measuring extroversion should use items that reflect all of these components. The content validity cannot be assessed numerically.

Face Validity

Psychological tests involve translating psychological functions into questions or requests. Sometimes the translation seems alien and hardly related to the actual psychological concept.Face validity refers to the feeling of the test users regarding how appropriate the test seems to them. For example, driving test seems very appropriate to measure driving behaviour as its requests are very similar to the ones required by actual driving.

Construct Validity

Psychological tests are translation of psychological concept into test items. The extent to which the test items actually measure the psychological concept, is known as construct validity.For example, if a test supposes to measure verbal reasoning and it uses uncommon words, it might measure other concepts such as language proficiency rather than verbal reasoning.The construct validity is assessed indirectly by correlating the test scores to another test score that is known to measure the same psychological concept. For example, the construct validity of a new test measuring dominance might be assessed by correlating it to the Humble versus Dominant scale on the 16PF or the Dominance scale on the EPPS.

psychometric test design

Example Psychometric Test Projects 

Rob Williams has over twenty years of experience of bespoke psychometric test design. Plus ten years prior to this spent working for several of the UK’s leading test publishers. These include IBM, OPP, SHL and HireVue.British Airways blended assessment project:
  • Firstly our BA Situational judgment test design;
  • Secondly,  our Numerical reasoning test design;
  • Thirdly our Verbal reasoning test design
  • Finally our Personality questionnaire design.

BUPA SJT Design

  • Best practice was followed throughout the design process in SJT design.
  • An SJT was produced which successfully incorporated a range of care home-specific scenarios.
  • The most suitable set of scenarios could be hand-picked at the SME panel meeting, as well as gaining buy-in and discussing implementation.
  • Providing some scenarios for telephone interview sifts.
  • Setting a suitable cut-off and validating the tool.
EPSO Test Design
  • Development of project management test.
  • Design of IT skills-based aptitude tests.

Psychometric test design

Our Work Styles assessment designs

We will work with you to design the most suitable work styles tool to suit your needs. Our Bespoke Personality Questionnaire design process aims to:
  • Firstly, include key role dimensions.
  • Secondly, reflect the personality, attitudinal and motivational aspects of the role-specific dimensions.
  • Thirdly, have face valid questions.
  • Also, to be capable of completion in 20 minutes approx.
  • And to adopt a single-stimulus question format (Likert scale)
  • Plus, adopting a normative format of scoring utilising a sten look-up table (for each personality scale)
  • And finally, using a Social Desirability scale to deal with the issue of faking or extreme scoring patterns

Psychometric test design

Recent situational judgement tests trends

Situational judgement tests (SJTs) have also become prevalent in graduate recruitment. These tests present scenarios to applicants and ask them to select the best and the worst thing to do next. SJT’s are very popular in the United States due to their excellent record of fairness across different ethnic groups.

Recent personality test trends

Candidates may also have to take a personality test as part of the recruitment process. There is a vast array of personality tests, which pose questions about a candidate’s behaviour and personal preferences. A typical question may ask whether you prefer attending parties or staying home with a good book. These personality tests help employers to determine whether a candidate has the right profile for the role.

Graduate Aptitude test designs

  • Our first point is that a well-designed selection procedure focuses on predicting a graduate’s competence within a particular work context.
  • Secondly, that psychometric assessments only form one part of the selection procedure.
  • Our third point is that personality assessments can give an indication of how well an individual applicant will fit into the existing workplace or team.
  • Finally, psychometric assessments can assess which applicants are most suited to the demands of the vacant job in terms of both ability and personality factors.

Other psychometric test design pillars

  • Standardization
  • Reliability – means if I take the same test next week, my results will be similar.
  • Validity – means the test measures what it says it measures. MindX knows which personality traits are measured because we have compared our results to well-established personality tests. HireVue validates its video assessments using high performer data and job analysis results.
  • Being Non-discriminatory

 Standardization

Since the first IQ tests were developed the whole point is to compare with a group of previous test-takers.

Reliability

There are two key types of psychometric reliability:Firstly, Internal Reliability / Internal Consistency – Whether all the test items measure the same concept. It can be assessed in two ways. The first method is known as the split-half reliability which require correlating the score based on half of the test items with the score based on the other half (e.g., scores on odd and even items). Alternative method is item-total reliability which requires correlating each item score with the total score of the rest of the items. There is a statistical measure called Cronbach alpha that summarises all the correlations into one figure. A test should have an alpha of at least a = .80.Secondly, Test-retest Reliability relates to psychometric score consistency over time. In other words, how reliably a psychometric test measures. Taking as an example, some stable characteristic such as intelligence:
  • Then the psychometric test design must produce similar results if a group of candidates are examined using the same test at two points in time.
  • A time gap of at least two weeks between the two measurements is key. Since some psychological characteristics change considerably over time.
  • Then, the test re-test reliability is assessed by correlating the tests scores measured first time with the test scores measured the second time. Ability tests are expected to have a reliability of at least r = .75, yet personality tests might have somewhat lower reliability.

Norming

Every psychometric test has at least one norm group.The standalone score has little meaning, so a comparison with previous candidate performance is used. For example, percentile rank.

Piloting and Trialling

A trial item as part of a larger-than-necessary set of pre-test items. The  final, refined test is created by refining those items that work best. This is based on a statistical analysis of the trial item set’s results.

Aptitude Test Reliability

Firstly, the psychometric test must be a reliable measure. Most commonly the internal consistency index coefficient alpha or its dichotomous formulation, KR-20. Under most conditions, these range from 0.0 to 1.0, with 1.0 being perfectly reliable measurement. A reliable test may still not be a valid test.

Aptitude Test Validity 

Secondly, is the test valid? A measure of what it ‘says on the tin’? In our opinion, both the initial content validation and later criterion validation analysis are vital for any bespoke psychometric test.We recommend collecting additional recruitment data over time so that additional validation studies can be conducted. Such as assessment centre data.There are many other types of psychometric test validation evidence, and one-off studies investigating a psychometric test’s criterion validity are common.

British Army Aptitude Test Design Example

Psychometric lead role with Kenexa IBM; managing twenty associates.
  • We developed over twenty psychometric tests;
  • Situational judgement tests for Officers and for Soldiers;
  • Realistic job previews for Officers and for soldiers;
  • Ability tests (including problem-solving test) for Officers;
  • Ability tests (including a spatial reasoning test) for soldiers;
  • Officer personality questionnaire;
  • Soldier career guidance tools.

Aptitude Tests’ Vital Role

Many companies today are turning to testing and assessment tools to help them address these challenges and make more substantive and data-driven hiring decisions. Assessments are a great way to level the playing field and evaluate many candidates for the same skill sets in an objective fashion, using real-life technical scenarios that mirror the work they will be performing on the job. Automated assessment tools in particular can scale to make better use of your time and resources. Several key recruitment benefits are listed below.

Differentiation Benefits

Providing unbiased assessments is a great way to distinguish yourself to candidates in a crowded hiring environment. Candidates will see that you really care about hiring the most qualified tech workers in a manner that is unbiased and uncovers their true value.

Biodata tool psychometric design

Test questions asking about previous working and life history facts. Biodata questions can include personal attitudes, values, beliefs. There are therefore both autographical and biographical perspectives. For example, how effective previous working relationships were with managers and/or colleagues.

Biodata test design

Whilst biodata was popular in the 1970’s/80’s in the UK, it fell out of fashion due to concerns about face validity. Face validity is how job-relevant a test’s questions appear to be. This is difficult to show with biodata’s indirect approach; posing biodata fit questions about past behaviours which can seem intrusive.Firstly in our opinion, these suggestions cannot explain the predictive power of some biographical items.In our opinion, construct validity studies of biodata scores are mainly based on the notion that past behaviour is the best predictor of future behaviour.

NEO personality test example

  • This is for one of the most well-researched personality tests used in both the US and the UK.
  • There is considerable research supporting the “Big Five” model of personality.
  • Like the 16PF5 personality questionnaire – the NEO is based on academically rigorous factor analysis.
  • There is a systematic model behind the set of NEO personality questions.

psychometric test design

Personality Values Test Design

  • 3-4 scenarios to assess each value.
  • Totalling approx. 15-16 questions.
  • Provides accurate and meaningful feedback to each respondent.

Values-Based Simulation Exercises

  • Scenarios from the job analysis can be used to design simulation exercises.
  • Parallel version developed to maximise exercise integrity.
  • Minimise risk of applicants sharing details of tools.
  • Compromising the validity of the assessment process.

Values Assessment

We can design values assessment exercises design to focus on any values framework.Values based recruitment may involve values based structured interviews, values based selection centres, values based situational judgement tests and/or values based personality tests.

Motivation Tests

Values impact goal content whereas personality traits impact the efforts that individuals make towards their goals.Registered Office: Rob Williams, 31 Bruton Way, Ealing, London, W13 0BYCompanies House Registration No: 6572976