Holland Career Guidance

The focus of this page is career guidance and career fit test design.

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HOLLAND Preferences

Firstly, occupational preferences refer to the individual interests and motivation — what the person really enjoys doing is matched with what the job actually involves and what the person will spend the majority of time doing.

Secondly, occupational preferences are matched with what the job actually involves and what the person will spend the majority of time doing. The most known theory is that of Holland (1985).

Holland’s suggested matching between six major types of personality and occupations:

  • Realistic: an outdoor type. Prefers physical, mechanical and systematic jobs. E.g., toolmaker, mechanic.
  • Investigative: analytical and curious jobs. E.g., research, chemist, physical scientist.
  • Artistic: imaginative type. Prefers expressive and non-conforming jobs. E.g., designer.
  • Social: training and helping jobs. E.g., social-worker, teacher, personnel.
  • Enterprising: goal directed and socially manipulative jobs. E.g., managerial.
  • Conventional: data and information manipulative jobs. E.g., clerical, accountancy.

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Holland suggests that a person should be described in terms of three types that resemble them most, and the order in which these three traits appear. This ends up with twenty-four personality types. For example, an ESI type is described best as enterprising, with strong social tendencies and minor intellectual tendencies. A typical career for an ESI person is a manager of retail store.

The six types can be represented in a hexagonal model. The six categories are ordered so that those with highest correlations are adjutant to each other; the correlations of pairs of categories opposite each other, are generally the lowest.

A large volume of research examined Holland’s theory. Although there is strong support to its psychometric model, the theory predictions of choice and change in the real world remain in doubt. There is strong evidence that vocational choices are related to personality profiles; furthermore, there is also evidence that matching is correlated with satisfaction and success. Yet, some researchers suggested that the strong association between personality and career choice is an artefact of the occupational choice measures. Most of the studies used questionnaires to measure occupational choice, rather than examining actual occupational choice. When the actual choice was used, the support to the theory was less certain.

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Preferences Part III

The most common and comprehensive occupational preference test is the Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB); other popular test is the Kuder Preference Record (KPR). The SVIB contains 399 items and provides three sets of scores. First, it provides scores on 22 basic interest scales, such as: public speaking, law politics, business management, sales, teaching, music, and adventure. Second, it provides scores on 45 occupational scales, such as dentist, architect, army officer, carpenter, personnel manager, librarian, accountant and sales manager. Finally, it provides scores on 8 non-occupational scales, such as academic achievement, managerial orientation and occupational level.

The SVIB is probably the best occupational preference test due to the vast information it provides. The consultant needs to send the results to the SVIB centre to get a plot of the results. An easier to score test that is very useful as well is the KPR. Unlike the SVIB it doesn’t have specific occupational scales, but rather have working areas and activities scales.

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10 personality tips to help your Study Skills

  1. Find time to study – If you manage your time badly, inevitably you will be less productive than if you manage it well. This can lead to increased stress and anxiety levels, especially around exam time.
  2. Keep to a routine – Work in the same place at the same time each day. Also, make sure you have everything you need before you start.
  3. Work to your strengths – Schedule challenging tasks for when you are most alert, and routine ones for when you may be feeling more tired.
  4. Don’t waste time – Rather than reading irrelevant material, skim and scan to help you decide if you need to read something critically and in-depth.
  5. Avoid distractions – Related to above. Switch emails and social media off to prevent your mind wandering while trying to learn new information!
  6. Regularly review your notes – Edit out what you don’t need. Ask yourself the question: “Is this information is relevant to my assignment, and how does it relate to what I already know.”
  7. Vary how you to take notes – For example, use Mind Maps and diagrams to generate ideas and linear notes to focus your ideas for essay or report plans.
  8. Be critical – Make sure that you always add your own comment to every concept or quotation that you write down. Maintain a critical and analytical approach at all times!
  9. Plan your work – If writing an assignment produce a detailed plan before you start to write it. This will make the drafting process much less stressful
  10. Understand different styles  – By understanding different writing styles – such as academic, journal and journalistic styles – you can put what you read into perspective. In particular, you can become more aware of any particular bias.

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Situational judgement tests trends in 2019

Situational judgement tests (SJTs) have also become prevalent in graduate recruitment. These tests presents scenarios to applicants and asks them to select the best and the worst thing to do next. SJT’s are very popular in the United States due to their excellent record of fairness across different ethnic groups.

Personality test trends in 2019

Candidates may also have to take a personality test as part of the recruitment process. There is a vast array of personality tests, which pose questions about a candidate’s behaviour and personal preferences. A typical question may ask whether you prefer attending parties or staying home with a good book. These personality tests help employers to determine whether a candidate has the right profile for the role.

Personality Tests Trend 2019 – Biodata questions

Personality biodata questions measure a variety of constructs, including attitudes, personality attributes, interests, skills/abilities, past events and experiences. An individual’s learning history is of particular interest.

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My Practice aptitude test books 

Firstly, Passing Verbal Reasoning Tests book.

Secondly, Passing Numerical reasoning Tests book.

Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests gif

Our Other Career Guidance Resources

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